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Genes and Diseases

Genes and Diseases

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Published by Chiranjit Debbarma

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Chiranjit Debbarma on Jun 19, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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01/03/2014

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WELCOME
TOPIC TO BE PRESENTED:
1. GENETICS OF RESISTANCE,
2. ‘R’ GENES,
 
3. MECHANISM OF GENETIC VARIATION IN PLANT PATHOGEN,
4. MOLECULAR BASIS FOR RESISTANCE,5. MARKER-ASSISTED SELECION,6. GENETIC ENGINEERING FOR DISEASES RESISTANCE.
 
GENES AND DISEASES
 
The pathogen is often specific for a particular host plant. Thus, the fungus
Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, which causes tomato wilt,
attacksonly tomato and has absolutely no effect on apple, wheat, or any other plant.
The gene combinations make a plant susceptible, i.e., a host to a particular pathogen, are present only in that one kind of plant and possibly a fewrelated kinds of plants.
The development of disease in a host is the presence in the pathogen of one or more genes for pathogenicity, for specificity, and for virulenceagainst the particular genes of host.
Plants may resistant to certain pathogens as because they belong totaxonomic groups outside the host range of these pathogens (non hostresistance) or because they possess genes for resistance (R genes)directed against the avirulence genes of the pathogen.
 
TYPES OF REGISTANCE
A.
TRUE RESISTANCE
:Disease resistance that is controlled genetically by the presence of one, a few,many genes for resistance in the plant is known as true resistance. In trueresistance, the host and the pathogen are more or less incompatible with oneanother, either because of lack of chemical recognition between the host and thepathogen or because the host plant can defend itself against the pathogen.
There are two kinds of true resistance
:
a)
Horizontal Resistance
: All plants have a certain, but not always the same, levelof possibly unspecific resistance that is effective against each of their pathogens.Such resistance is sometimes called partial, race nonspecific, general,quantitative, polygenic, adult-plant, field, or durable resistance, but in the past itwas referred to most commonly as horizontal resistance. It is also known asPartial, Quantitative, Polygenic resistance.
b)
Vertical Resistance
: Many plant varieties are quite resistant to some races of apathogen while they are susceptible to other races of the same pathogen knownas monogenic, qualitative, major gene, vertical or R gene resistance.

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