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Scientific Method

Scientific Method

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Published by Sofia Ignacio

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Published by: Sofia Ignacio on Jun 19, 2012
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06/19/2012

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SC104 C
HEMISTRY
01 S
CIENTIFIC
M
ETHOD
Dr. Gil C. Claudio
University of Asia and the Pacific
First Semester 2012-2013
T
ABLE OF
C
ONTENTS
S
L
E
C
T
T
S
M
C
P
W
 
S
CIENCE AND
L
IBERAL
E
DUCATION
Liberal Education
: “to know a little of everything and a lot aboutsomething”.
Science
studies
physical reality
. This study is done through
measurement
and
experimentation
.
Mathematics
allows us to work with the results of measurements.We arrive at some
physical cause
of material reality. Not “why”but “how much”?The main advantage is that science gives us a
power to predict
how material events will turn out.
C
HEMISTRY
, S
CIENCE AND
T
ECHNOLOGY
Basic Science, Applied Science, and Technology
Basic Science
is concerned with gathering knowledge andorganizing it. Pursuit of knowledge without the goal of apractical application. Pursuit of knowledge for its own sake.
Applied Science
is a science with a well-defined, short-termgoal of solving a specific problem.
Technology
is the application of scientific knowledge in thecontext of industrial production, our economic system, andour societal goals.
Chemistry
is the branch of science that studies the
compositionand structure
of matter, the
properties
resulting from them, the
changes
that matter can undergo, and the
energy
involved inthese changes.
 
T
HE
S
CIENTIFIC
M
ETHOD
The
scientific method
is an orderly method of gaining,organizing, and applying new knowledge.
1.
Careful
observation
of a phenomenon induces theinvestigator to
question
its cause, or recognize a
problem
.
2.
Make and
educated guess
–a
hypothesis
–in order to explainthe observation.
3.
Predict
the consequences that should be observable if thehypothesis is correct and that should be absent if thehypothesis is not correct.
4.
The scientist devices an
experiment
to test the predictions.
5.
The outcome of the experiment often raises more questionsthat lead to a
modification
of the hypothesis and
furtherexperimentation
.
6.
Eventually, an accepted hypothesis that has been verified bydifferent experiments can be elevated into a
theory
or
law
.
F
ROM
H
YPOTHESIS TO
T
HEORY
A
hypothesis
is an educated guess. A reasonable explanationof an observation or experimental result that is not fullyaccepted as factual until tested over and over again.
The word
model
is reserved for situations when it is knownthat the hypothesis has at least limited validity.
A
scientific law
or
principle
is a general hypothesis orstatement about the relationship of natural quantities thathas been tested over and over again and has not beencontradicted. It summarizes a broad variety of observationsand experiences.
A
theory
is a synthesis of a large body of information thatencompasses well-tested and verified hypothesis about certainaspects of the natural world.

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