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Geography Notes

Geography Notes

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Published by owdkasld

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Published by: owdkasld on Jun 19, 2012
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06/19/2012

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Geography Notes
EU policies + development
Core-periphery Model:
Core:-Major centres of growth-Broad range of attractions forlarge-scale development-Centrally located, prosperousurban-industrial economy-Excellent range of services + jobs-Centres of decision makingPeriphery:-Limited growth-Not attractive for moderndevelopments-Marginal location, poor access toprosperous markets-Limited jobs + low standards of living-Few urban centres, inadequateservices-Overdependence on primarysectorDecisions, services, manufactured goodsCapital and other government incentives freemarket To promote developmentWorkers, raw materials, farm products, capitalRegionaldevelopmentGovernment intervention: subsidies, attract industry to periphery, fundsNational Core: centre of development within a country, not always the politicalcapital e.g. MilanInternational Core: core stretched across different countries, joined through urbansprawl e.g. Manchester – Milan axis, Rhine-RuhrUpward Transition regions: located close to the core.-Good transport links-Good place for companies to locate
o
Less congestion
o
More space
o
Good transport linksDecentralisation: businesses moving out of the cities
too much congestion, nospace to expand
 
Gov. tries to spread industry + services out across EU, incentives usede.g. tax relief, subsidiesHeavy ind. : tied to location, low value per weightLight ind. : not tied (footloose)High value per weightmechanisedChange of International Core:1.Industrial Triangle of North-West Europe-19
th
century
based on major coalfields in N-W Europe-Area specialised in Heavy industries
large-scale, urban-industrialdevelopments e.g. Sambre-Meuse Valley, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Ruhr-Dominant growth region until 1950s2.Manchester-Milan axis-1960s
role of coal + heavy industries declined-Consumer-orientated industries more significant, attracted to:
o
Urban areas growing rapidly in pop.
o
Areas with good transport infrastructures
o
Good international linkages
o
Enlarged international market created under Treaty of Rome
Axis of rapid development
o
From Manchester to Milan
o
Linked by highly developed transport system
o
Include major national economic cores e.g. London, Randstad,Rhine-Ruhr3.European ‘dogleg-1980s
evolution of core continued
o
EU enlargement into Mediterranean region
o
Signing of SEA (Single European Act) 1986-‘four motors of development’
o
Baden Wurttemberg
o
Lombardy
o
Rhone Alps
o
Catalonia-European ‘sunbelt’ emerging from 3 of these: from North-West Italy throughSouthern France to Catalonia
o
Environmental attractions
o
Footloose modern industries-Northern extremity declining
o
Decline of textiles and engineering industriesProblems in the Core:-Congestion-Pollution-Inner city decline e.g. London Docklands
modernization needed-Closure of mines cause long term unemployment-High land valuesProblems in the Periphery:
 
-Under-development-High % of workers in farming (extensive
low output)-No companies locate there
Regional Policy
Aims:1.Help those lagging behind in dev.2.Help those with declining industry
modern businesses3.Help those with declining agriculture4.Help regeneration of run-down urban areasFunds:-ERDF: promotes economic + social cohesion, investment leading to new jobs + infrastructural improvements-ESF: employment policy, aims to prevent unemployment, promoteintegration of the labour market-EAGGF: rural development, improvement of the agricultural structures,finance the CAP and EAFRD-EFF: reform of the fisheries industryConvergence region:a)10 countries with lowest GDP, 42% of EU average: 10 of last 12, not Cyprus +Sloveniab)5 countries: Spain, Portugal, Greece, Slovenia: 71% of EU average GDPCompetitiveness and Employment region:-12 states not covered by convergence, with 115% of EU GDP e.g. Ireland
o
Phasing-out
Leaving convergence as more developed
e.g. BMW region
o
Phasing-in
Regions that are not convergence + are developed enough tobe in C+E region
e.g. South + East IrelandCohesion Fund objectives:1.Convergence: help less developed areas to catch up2.Regional Competitiveness and Employment: regions not covered byconvergence3.European territorial co-operation objective: improve inter-regional co-operationChallenges for Cohesion Fund:-Difference in development is greater-Focus of cohesion policy
move towards Eastern Europe-Inequalities in old 15 states still existExample of Peripheral region: The Mezzogiorno: (see mind-map)
Turkey

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