Bakgou to t pot
More people in the world now live in urban areas than in rural areas. It is estimatedthat as many as one billion people, 15 per cent of the world’s total of sevenbillion, currently live in urban slums, and this number will likely double within 20years.Until recently however, Oxfam, like other development agencies, focusedprimarily on rural poverty.Following the publication of Oxfam’s Aim 1 Strategy 2010 – 2015, which incorporatedpoverty and urban-rural linkages as a core aim, this study was undertaken byan independent research team to determine the extent to which Oxfam’s rurallivelihoods experience – focused primarily on enterprise development – istransferable to urban contexts. The research for the study, undertaken betweenJanuary and June 2011, draws on extensive collaboration with Oxfam global,regional, and country teams in Bangladesh, Guatemala, Colombia, Haiti, Kenya,and Russia.
Uba makt-ba lvloo (MBL) otxt
‘Rural’ and ‘urban’ are extremes on a continuum with many in-between stages,varying from small towns to peri-urban areas, and with a dynamic set of spatial
and sectoral ows between them, creating interdependencies. While rural and
urban poverty can be seen as related aspects of a common condition, urbancontexts do not simply replicate rural contexts and urban poverty is substantivelydifferent from rural poverty. All aspects of urban contexts – political, economic, social, technological/infrastructure, and environment – are typically more complicated, diverse, anddynamic than those found in rural areas. Furthermore, urban dwellers tend toengage in very different economic activities than people living in rural areas.
While the majority of rural dwellers are engaged primarily in agriculture and
related activities, most urban workers are likely to be engaged in the informalmanufacturing or service sector.There tends to be a higher number of female-headed households in urban,
compared with rural, areas. Women are concentrated in the lower-paying and more
risky segments of the informal economy while also delivering a disproportionateshare of family care and household services. Urban areas tend to have a youthfuldemographic with a large proportion (for example, 75 per cent in Kenya) of thepopulation under 30 years old. Many of those under 30 are unemployed.