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Global Urban Market-Based Livelihoods in Oxfam GB: Lessons and experiences from Kenya, Bangladesh, Guatemala, Colombia, Haiti, and Russia

Global Urban Market-Based Livelihoods in Oxfam GB: Lessons and experiences from Kenya, Bangladesh, Guatemala, Colombia, Haiti, and Russia

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Published by Oxfam
Following the publication of Oxfam GB's Livelihoods Strategy 2010–2015, which incorporated poverty and urban-rural linkages as a core aim, this study was undertaken by an independent research team to determine the extent to which Oxfam’s rural
livelihoods experience –- focused primarily on enterprise development –- is transferable to urban contexts. The research for this study, undertaken between January and June 2011, draws on extensive collaboration with Oxfam global, regional, and country teams in Bangladesh, Guatemala, Colombia, Haiti, Kenya, and Russia.
Following the publication of Oxfam GB's Livelihoods Strategy 2010–2015, which incorporated poverty and urban-rural linkages as a core aim, this study was undertaken by an independent research team to determine the extent to which Oxfam’s rural
livelihoods experience –- focused primarily on enterprise development –- is transferable to urban contexts. The research for this study, undertaken between January and June 2011, draws on extensive collaboration with Oxfam global, regional, and country teams in Bangladesh, Guatemala, Colombia, Haiti, Kenya, and Russia.

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Published by: Oxfam on Jun 19, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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02/08/2013

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Lessons and Experiences from Kenya, Bangladesh,Guatemala, Colombia, Haiti, and Russia
Sheilah Meikle, Tim Chambers, Alex Frediani, and Tom Goodfellow
www.oxfam.org
 
Akowlgmt
The research team would like to thank all those individuals who gave us their support and opened up their knowledge and experiences during the course of the study for their contributions to this report. In particular we would like to thank the Oxfam staff in Bangladesh, Guatemala, Kenya, and Russia; our external supportgroup; and, most importantly, David Bright, Thalia Kidder, and Amonah Achi. Thank you for your patienceand encouragement on what has been an exciting and challenging journey.This report written by Sheilah Meikle, Tim Chambers (Oxfam), Alex Frediani, and Tom Goodfellow.It was jointly commissioned by David Bright, Business and Markets Team (PPT) and Michele Bruni, LAC.Graphic design by Alexis Bartrina.Published in April 2012
by Oxfam GB
For more information visit us at www.oxfam.org
 
Bakgou to t pot 
More people in the world now live in urban areas than in rural areas. It is estimatedthat as many as one billion people, 15 per cent of the world’s total of sevenbillion, currently live in urban slums, and this number will likely double within 20years.Until recently however, Oxfam, like other development agencies, focusedprimarily on rural poverty.Following the publication of Oxfam’s Aim 1 Strategy 2010 – 2015, which incorporatedpoverty and urban-rural linkages as a core aim, this study was undertaken byan independent research team to determine the extent to which Oxfam’s rurallivelihoods experience – focused primarily on enterprise development – istransferable to urban contexts. The research for the study, undertaken betweenJanuary and June 2011, draws on extensive collaboration with Oxfam global,regional, and country teams in Bangladesh, Guatemala, Colombia, Haiti, Kenya,and Russia.
Uba makt-ba lvloo (MBL)  otxt
‘Rural’ and ‘urban’ are extremes on a continuum with many in-between stages,varying from small towns to peri-urban areas, and with a dynamic set of spatial
and sectoral ows between them, creating interdependencies. While rural and
urban poverty can be seen as related aspects of a common condition, urbancontexts do not simply replicate rural contexts and urban poverty is substantivelydifferent from rural poverty. All aspects of urban contexts political, economic, social, technological/infrastructure, and environment – are typically more complicated, diverse, anddynamic than those found in rural areas. Furthermore, urban dwellers tend toengage in very different economic activities than people living in rural areas.
While the majority of rural dwellers are engaged primarily in agriculture and
related activities, most urban workers are likely to be engaged in the informalmanufacturing or service sector.There tends to be a higher number of female-headed households in urban,
compared with rural, areas. Women are concentrated in the lower-paying and more
risky segments of the informal economy while also delivering a disproportionateshare of family care and household services. Urban areas tend to have a youthfuldemographic with a large proportion (for example, 75 per cent in Kenya) of thepopulation under 30 years old. Many of those under 30 are unemployed.
Executive Suary

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