EGE217: Electronics 1Lecturer: Siti Hamimah Sh. IsmailJanuary 2009
4.2 The Biased Transistor
Now lets look at what happen when the transistor is connected to anexternal voltage source as in figure below:Figure 2 The minus signs represent free electrons.
The job of heavily doped emitter:
to emit its free electrons into thebase.
The job of lightly doped base:
to pass emitter-injected electrons ontothe collector.
At the instant that the forward bias is applied to the emitter diode, theelectrons in the emitter have not yet entered the base region. If V
than the emitter-base barrier potential, emitter electrons willenter the base region. Theoretically, these free electrons can flow either to the left and out of the base to R
or flow into the collector. But, actually, most of the freeelectrons will move to the collector. This is because:1.The base is lightly doped. Means that the free electrons have a longlifetime in the base region.2.The base is very thin. Means that the free electrons have a veryshort distance to go to reach the collector. Thus, most of the free electrons are passed to the collector. Only a fewfree electrons will recombine with holes in the lightly doped base. Then as valence electrons, they will flow through the base resistor tothe positive side of the V