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Elect Chap 4 Latest

Elect Chap 4 Latest

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Published by: mimie20063808 on Jan 06, 2009
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06/14/2009

 
EGE217: Electronics 1Lecturer: Siti Hamimah Sh. IsmailJanuary 2009
ELECTRONICS 1
CHAPTER 4: BIPOLAR JUNCTIONTRANSISTOR
Introduction
A bipolar junction transistor is a semiconductor device that canamplify electronic signal such as radio and television signals. Thischapter introduces the bipolar transistor, the kind that uses both freeelectrons and holes. The word bipolar means "two polarities".
4.1 Transistor Construction
A transistor has three doped regions as shown in figure below:Figure 1 The bottom region is called the emitter, the middle region is the baseand the top region is the collector. The transistor in figure above is an
npn 
device, because there is a
 p 
region between two
regions. Transistors are also manufactured as
 pnp 
devices, but for now we willconcentrate on
npn 
first.Note that the emitter is heavily doped, the base is lightly doped andthe collector is intermediate between the heavy doping of the emitterand the light doping of the base.
41
 
EGE217: Electronics 1Lecturer: Siti Hamimah Sh. IsmailJanuary 2009
4.2 The Biased Transistor
Now lets look at what happen when the transistor is connected to anexternal voltage source as in figure below:Figure 2 The minus signs represent free electrons.
The job of heavily doped emitter:
to emit its free electrons into thebase.
The job of lightly doped base:
to pass emitter-injected electrons ontothe collector.
4.2.1Base Electrons
At the instant that the forward bias is applied to the emitter diode, theelectrons in the emitter have not yet entered the base region. If V
BB
is
greater
than the emitter-base barrier potential, emitter electrons willenter the base region. Theoretically, these free electrons can flow either to the left and out of the base to R
B
or flow into the collector. But, actually, most of the freeelectrons will move to the collector. This is because:1.The base is lightly doped. Means that the free electrons have a longlifetime in the base region.2.The base is very thin. Means that the free electrons have a veryshort distance to go to reach the collector. Thus, most of the free electrons are passed to the collector. Only a fewfree electrons will recombine with holes in the lightly doped base. Then as valence electrons, they will flow through the base resistor tothe positive side of the V
BB
supply.
42
 
EGE217: Electronics 1Lecturer: Siti Hamimah Sh. IsmailJanuary 2009
4.2.2 Collector Electrons
Once the free electrons are in the collector, they feel the attraction of the V
CC
source voltage. Because of this, the free electrons flow throughthe collector and through R
C
until they reach the positive terminal of the collector supply voltage.
4.3Transistor Currents
Figure 3In figure above, we can see that there are three different currents in atransistor:
Emitter current I
E
Base current I
B
Collector current I
C
 The emitter has the largest current because it is the source of theelectrons.From Kirchoff's current law:
 B E 
 I  I 
+=
 The collector current is almost as large as emitter current becausemost of the emitter’s electron flow to the collector.
 E 
 I 
 The base current is very small by comparison, often is less than 1 %of the collector current.
 B
 I 
<<
 The
dc alpha
is defined as the dc collector current divided by the dcemitter current:
 E dc
 I  I 
=
α 
43

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