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Elect Chap 5 Latest

Elect Chap 5 Latest

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Published by: mimie20063808 on Jan 06, 2009
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06/14/2009

 
EGE217: Electronics 1Lecturer: Siti Hamimah Sh. IsmailJanuary 2009
ELECTRONICS 1
CHAPTER 5: BIPOLAR TRANSISTORBIASING
Introduction
 There are two basic ways to set up the operating point of a transistor:base bias and emitter bias. Base bias produces a fixed value of basecurrent whereas emitter bias produces a fixed values of emittercurrent. Base bias is most useful in switching circuits while emitterbias is important in amplifying circuits.
5.1 The Load Line (Graphical Solution)
Figure below shows the CE connection mentioned in previous chapter, which is also an example of base bias (which means setting up a fixedvalue of base current).Figure 1We can find the Q point using a graphical solution based on thetransistor load line, a graph of I
C
versus V
CE
.Based on the equation:
CE CC CC CE 
 R I  R I 
==
49
 
=
V15
CE 
 I 
EGE217: Electronics 1Lecturer: Siti Hamimah Sh. IsmailJanuary 2009
If we graph this equation, (I
C
versus V
CE
) we will get a straight line. This line is called a load line, because it represents the effect of loadon I
C
and V
CE
.Substituting the values:Note that the equation is linear. So, when V
CE
= 0; I
C
= 5 mA.When I
C
= 0, V
CE
= 15 V. The load line is :Figure 2
5.1.1 The Saturation Point
 The saturation point is where the load intersects the saturation regionof the collector curves. Because the V
CE
at saturation is very small, thesaturation point is almost touching the
upper end
of the load line. The saturation point tells us the maximum possible collector currentfor the circuit. To find the current at the saturation point, visualise a short betweenthe collector and emitter to get figure below:Figure 3
50
 
EGE217: Electronics 1Lecturer: Siti Hamimah Sh. IsmailJanuary 2009
 Then V
CE
drops to zero. All the 15V from collector supply will be across3 k
. Thus the current:
mA5300015
==
 I 
and the formula:
CC  sat 
 R I 
=
)(
5.1.2The Cutoff Point
 The cutoff point is the point where the load line intersects the cutoff region of the collector curves. Because the collector current at thecutoff is very small, the cutoff point almost touches the
lower end
of the load line. The cutoff point tells us the maximum possible collector-emittervoltage for the circuit. To find the cutoff point, visualise the transistor as an open circuitbetween the collector and the emitter, as shown below:Figure 4Since there is no current through the collector resistor, all the 15 Vfrom the collector supply will appear between the collector emitterterminals. Thus, it is equals to 15 V.
51

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