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Human Develpment Final

Human Develpment Final

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Published by Brittany Campbell

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Published by: Brittany Campbell on Jun 19, 2012
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Thompson, R. A., Gregory, A. (2010, September 13).
“Examining the Influence of Perceived  Discrimination During African American Adolescents’ Early Years of High School.
 Educationand Urban Society 43: 3-25.Retrieved from http://eus.sagepub.com/content/43/1/3.short  A study consisting of low-achieving African Americans took place at a large public high school ina midsized southeastern city. The high school held approximately 1,200 students of which only 46 whereinvolved in the study. The study followed the 46 students through the first two years of their high schoolexperience. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence that the students perceiveddiscrimination had on their classroom engagement and academic identification; and writher of not
student’s perception would change over time. The study also examined the correlation between thestudent’s racial identity/racial centrality; racial supp
ort and the impact these variables had on theirperception of discrimination in their school.The students during the first year (9
th
grade) were given surveys to complete. The surveys wererated on a 6, and 7 point Likert-type scale. Each student were asked to rate their classroom engagement,racial centrality and perceptions of discrimination. The students were also given surveys during theirsecond (10
th
grade) year. Again, the students were asked to rate their classroom engagement andperception of discrimination. However, they were also asked to rate their perceived racial support andtheir academic identification. Upon the completion of the surveys the results determined that the level of perceived discrimination ranged from name calling, to feeling inferior did not significantly change from9
th
grade to 10
th
grade. Students who reported experiences of discrimination in their first year of highschool also reported being less engaged in the classroom during their second year of high school(Thompson, R.A., Gregory, A, 2010). Students who reported high academic identification also reportedbeing engaged in the classroom; those who reported low academic identification also reported being lessengaged in the classroom. The study also determined t
hat racial support did not really affect the student’s
perceived discrimination.I think that this was a very promising study. However, I feel as if the sample size was not bigenough to produce accurate results. This was a sample of 46 African American students in one highschool. Therefore, I did not agree that the results of the study reflected the seriousness of racialdiscrimination in schools and how much the variables involved can impact academic success. I also felt asif the time length
was not long to determine if the student’s perceived discrimination would change over 
time.According to our text (pg.173), long time effects of low academic identification can lead tostudents adapting performance-avoidance goals. Students to avoid looking stupid or dumb will
“psychologically disengage” from academic participation and be less engage in classroom learning. Our text, also states that “stereotype threats” can have short
-term effects on test performance by inducing testanxiety and could potentially undermine performance. In conclusion, racial discrimination can potentially
have a huge impact student’s academic identification, engagement in the classroom and participation in
their own learning. Students who feel discriminated against might be less incline to place importance ontheir learning, which in turn could cause students to drop out of school.
 
 Seaton, K.E, Yip, T. (2008, October 24).
“School and Neighborhood Context, Perceptions of Racial 
 Discrimination, and Psychological Well-
being Among African American Adolescents.”
Journal of Youthand Adolescents 38:153-163. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/content/k6671g5251g74j67/   A study consisting of two hundred and fifty two urban African American adolescents took placein a large northeastern city. The study was composed of 116 males (46 percent) and 136 females (54percent) from ages 13 to 18. The study targeted 51 public schools, which only eight were chosen. Thestudents were interviewed between 30 to 60 minutes, debriefed and then allowed to ask questions. The
 purpose of the study was to determine rather or not the diversity of the student’s neighborhood and school
would infl
uence the student’s perceptions of racial discrimination, and psychological well
-being. Thestudents then reported that 56 percent of their parent/guardians were either married/cohabitating, 9percent were separated, 8 percent divorced; 22 percent never married and 4 percent were widowed. Thestudents were also asked to report their parent/guardians education levels: less than 8 percent had highschool diploma, 45 percent had at least a high school diploma, 25 percent attend at least one year of college or
had an associate degree; 11 percent had a bachelor’s degree and only 8 percent had a graduate’s
degree. The students neighborhood racial diversity was determine using the data from the United StatesCensus in 2000. Each student was then asked to provide their current residential address and the
information was used to determine the racial composition of the neighborhood. The student’s school
diversity was obtained based on the percentage of African American, Hispanic, White and Asian students.The results from the study determined that the students who lived in high diverse neighborhoodsand attended high diverse schools reported increased perceptions of racial discrimination. The study alsomade the connection between poor or low self-esteem in high diversity settings. Students also reportedlower life satisfaction in low diversity settings. However, the study concluded that the students perceivedmore institutionalized discrimination then individual discrimination.I think that this study was very successful in some many different areas. For starters, the samplesize was large enough that a reasonable result could be determined. Also, the students from the studywere not all from the same school or neighborhood. This method was perhaps best strategy to help obtainaccurate results based on real information. I was not surprised by the results given the fact that grew up ina diverse neighborhood and could relate to the findings. I agree with the assessment given by the resultsof the study.
According to our text (pg.171), “we notice information that conforms or agrees with our 
stereotype-our scheme-
and miss or dismiss information that does not fit”. In high diverse settings such as
neighborhoods or schools, people from different ethnic backgrounds tend to assume or judge others basedon preconceived ideas/views. This means that the chance of African Americans being discriminatedagainst is highly likely. Less than 10 percent of scientists, engineers, and mathematicians in the UnitedStates are either African American or Hispanic American (WoolFolk, A., 2010). To what degree does thisteach young impressible African Americans?
 
 
Pershey, G.M., (2011). “
 A Comparison of African American Students’ Self 
-Perceptions of schoolCompetence with their performance on State-Mandated Achievement Tests and Normed 
Tests of Oral and Written Language and Reading.”
Preventing School Failure:Alternative Education for children and Youth, 55:1, 53-62. Retrieved fromhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10459880903472835 In an urban suburb setting 10 miles from the center of a large city, a study involving two hundredand sixty three students was conducted. Out of those numbers, 144 students were in the fourth-grade (64 boys, 76 girls) and 123 students were in the sixth grade (56 boys, 67 girls) ranging
from ages 10 to 12. The purpose of this study was to measure how participants’ self 
-perceptionsof school competence might affect their performance on mandated testing in addition to theeffect of their language skills (Pershey, G.M, 2011). Starting in February to June 2011, studentswere tested individually and also placed into small groups of 10. Students were allowed to leaveclass and assigned to unused rooms/areas designed as testing stations. Students completed a totalof 3-4 hours of testing each day. Students attended between 2 to 4 sessions over 4 days a week.Upon completion of each test, students were then rotated to different testing stations. Studentswere tested on oral/written language and reading and the PASS. To avoid order effects the testswere administered in random order.The study determined that the general ability of the fourth-graders were slightly belowaverage.

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