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Cooling Effect by Vertical Greenery System in a High Rise Building and Surroundings

Cooling Effect by Vertical Greenery System in a High Rise Building and Surroundings

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Greening the wall of the building facade, known as vertical green system (VGS), has not been fully explored and exploited. Therefore, the widespread use of VGS not only reduces the potential impact of UHI in evapotranspirasi and shade, but it is also a transformation that affects the urban landscape. VGS appears to be a sensible strategy for greening cities, given the preponderance of wall space that is available in urban canyons.
Greening the wall of the building facade, known as vertical green system (VGS), has not been fully explored and exploited. Therefore, the widespread use of VGS not only reduces the potential impact of UHI in evapotranspirasi and shade, but it is also a transformation that affects the urban landscape. VGS appears to be a sensible strategy for greening cities, given the preponderance of wall space that is available in urban canyons.

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Published by: Badrazj on Jun 20, 2012
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Cooling Effect by Vertical Greenery System in a High Rise Building and Surroundings
Badrulzaman Jaafar
1
, Ismail Said
2
and Mohd Hisyam Rasidi
31
Phd Candidate,
2
Associate Professor and Senior Lecturer
3
 Department of Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Built EnvironmentUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaBadrazj@gmail.com
Abstract
Greening the wall of the building facade, known as vertical green system (VGS), has not beenfully explored and exploited. Therefore, the widespread use of VGS not only reduces the potentialimpact of UHI in evapotranspirasi and shade, but it is also a transformation that affects the urbanlandscape. VGS appears to be a sensible strategy for greening cities, given the preponderance of wall space that is available in urban canyons. Such as green roofs, VGS is expected to reduce theheat, energy consumption and improve the cooling effect on the area around the building. It alsohas the potential to provide a larger space for the plants may be available on the external walls of buildings in urban areas, and plants growing on the walls can cause a vertical view of the green.The main purpose of this paper is to present research methods and approaches proposed to studythe suitability of design and technology for cooling the building and surrounding areas. The effectof design parameters on the microclimate of the building and the cooling technology is discussed.A detailed study of the information revealed that apart from refrigeration, the study design greenvertical system, evaluation of many factors such as physical structure, the dimensions of the mainpanel of species of plants and substrate, type of substrate, composition and moisture content affectthe performance of the vertical green. Therefore, the use of VGS is possible to produce a coolingeffect on the surface of the building and its surroundings. Experiment and simulation arerecommended to confirm the success. In conclusion, the results of this study will help inelucidating the complex interactions between various parameters and the role played by eachfactor individually and together in the urban built environment.Keywords: Vertical greenery system, cooling effect, urban heat island, plant
1.
 
Introduction
In today‟s world, the rapid pace of urbanization and the growing concern
for climate change have ledto the increasing trend of bringing nature back into cities (Chiang and Tan, 2009). Greenery has become a key element of urban transformation and the exterior surfaces of buildings have been deemed to hold vastopportunities for the insertion of greenery into urban-spaces; planting on roofs and walls has since become oneof the most innovative and rapidly developing features of city planning, architecture and ecological landscaping(GRHC, 2008). Demand for office and housing space in ever diminishing land space has led to taller and tallerbuildings reaching for the skies in cities around the world. This shortage of land in many cities has unfortunatelyalso led to a scarcity of natural vegetation in urban settings. If this situation is not handled properly, there wouldbe an uncomfortable environment for local residents. Due to artificial urbanization, urban heat island hasbecome a serious problem. Greenery is expected to be an effective countermeasure, and much research isavailable regarding green roofs, green walls, street trees, parks and woodland.Urban heat island is the effect of the increase measured in the ambient air temperature resultingprimarily from the replacement of vegetation with buildings, roads and other infrastructure to absorb heat. Heatisland effects can cause significant temperature differences between urban and rural areas (EPA, 2008). Heatisland phenomenon can occur during the day or night. Givoni (1998) mentions that the greatest height of urbantemperatures occur during the night was still clear and the air. In this case, the temperature elevation of about 3-5 ° C are common, but the ascent of about 80-10 ° C is also observed. Today, the majority of the cities is around2 ° C warmer than rural areas and commercial areas and high density residential is warmer by 5 to 7 ° C (Bonan,2002). There are several key parameters that influence the temperature rise in the cities and play an importantrole in it. Therefore, urban heat islands caused by other factors can be divided into two types: (1) weatherfactors, such as cloud cover, wind speed and humidity, and the city parameters (2) such as city and populationsize, heat and anthropogenic effects of urban canyons.
 
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1.1 Reducing Temperature
Greenery can be used as a tool for mitigating the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect; directly by shadingheat-absorbing surfaces and indirectly through evapotranspiration cooling (McPherson, 1994). UHI describesthe built up areas that are hotter than nearby rural areas. This effect can be felt in urban areas where buildings,roads and other infrastructure replace vast vegetative land areas that were once moist and permeable with hardsurfaces that are dry and impermeable. The annual mean air temperature of city with 1 million people or morecan be 1 to 3
0
C warmer than its surroundings (US EPA, 2008).Thus, greening of the facade of building walls, known as vertical greenery systems (VGSs), has yet tobe fully explored and exploited. Simply due to the sheer amount of building walls, the widespread use of vertical greenery systems not only represents a great potential in mitigating the UHI effect throughevapotranspiration and shading, it is also a highly impactful way of transforming the urban landscape (Wong etal. 2010).Vertical greenery represents a new dimension in greenery-related infrastructure, where plants areincorporated within the vertical surfaces of buildings. While the idea itself is not new and a few countries havealready conducted research and development into this area, vertical greenery has yet to be implemented on anextensive scale. Given the large surface areas on buildings that available for retrofitting with these technologies,there is a great deal of latent potential worth uncovering by utilising vertical greenery for positive environmentalchange in already dense urban areas (GRHC, 2008). A report by Bass and Baskaran (2003) investigated thepotential of even a newer technology, vertical gardens, essentially moving the vegetation from the roof to thewalls, in an urban environment. Vertical gardens could refer to vine-covered walls, but they could also includeadditional infrastructure components to support the growing of vegetation on a wall or as part of a windowshade. Both technologies were assessed using observations and modeling, and both were assessed with regardsto the urban heat island and the reduction of indoor temperatures.The aim of this study is to analyse and assess the influence of VGS as a tool in reducing the surfacetemperature of the walls and enhance the cooling effect of the building and its surroundings. The objectives of this study include (1) studying the effects of VGS in lowering high temperatures in the wall of the building andits surroundings, and (2) comparing the effectiveness of using VGS tools through experiment and simulation toreduce the UHI effect. This paper will examine the assumptions about the use of live plants in the VGS on thesurface of the building to reduce heat and provide a significant change in temperature. In addition, the study willbe conducted to analyze the truth that the use of VGS is cooler than the exposed concrete surface because mostof the absorbed energy is used to evaporate water rather than heat the surface and overlying air.
2.
 
Theoretical Framework
Research work is based on the results of the experiments, simulations and data collection. This studywill use a quantitative approach. This study is a combination of experimental data and work to collect data in thefield. Results of experiments and data collected will be used as a source of design simulation models. The focusof this study is given to the cooling effect. Therefore, data obtained from the materials and methods used toevaluate and predict the likely performance of the system resources and green vertical. Thus, this study willdepend on three levels. First, the characteristics that affect the urban heat island (UHI) and the effectiveness of surface cooling in the building and its surroundings. Second, on-site data collection as a guide for the study.Third, the use of equipment such as GIS and Envi-met in this study as in Table 1.The core of this research involves the study of vertical greenery systems with the objective of evaluating the thermal impacts of various vertical greenery systems on the performance of buildings and theirimmediate environment based on the surface and ambient temperatures (Wong et al. 2010). This studyrepresents the combined work of obtaining experimental data and simulation in the field. Both methods shouldbe conducted to obtain data on the surface temperature of the building and its surroundings. Both the dataobtained will be used as references in preparing the analysis of the results later.
 
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Table 1.
Research design - Theoretical framework 
.
 The focus of the study was given only to the three parameters such as temperature, humidity and leaf area density (LAD). To answer the research questions, quantitative data will be gathered. Research andobservation sites to obtain a clear picture of the relevant studies will be conducted on site. The factors identifiedwere related to temperature, humidity and cooling effect on the surface of the wall of the building and itssurroundings. The research work based upon the experimental results by field studies, simulation and datacollection in Figure 1.
Figure 1.
Proposed research design for dependent variable and independent variable.

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