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Wipeout FINAL

Wipeout FINAL

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Wipeout
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Published by: David Lightning Bowers on Jun 20, 2012
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Wichita State 1Tournament 2009 Wipeout
Wipeout FINAL
 
Wichita State 2Tournament 2009 Wipeout
1NC PaRtY
Extend all their extinction impacts- time for wipeoutAliens are real and there are at least 10,000 independent civilizationsDrake 02
, Astronomy and Astrophysics Professor University of California at Santa Cruz ,<July, Astrobiology Magazine,http://www.astrobio.net/news/article236.html>The Earth's fossil record is quite clear in showing that the complexity of the central nervous system - particularly the capabilities of  the brain - has steadily increased in the course of evolution. Even the mass extinctions did not set back this steady increase in brain size. It can be argued that extinction events expedite the development of cognitiveabilities, since those creatures with superior brains are better able to save themselves from the sudden change in their environment. Thus smartercreatures are selected, and the growth of intelligence accelerates. We see this effect in all varieties of animals -- it is not a fluke that has occurredin some small sub-set of animal life. This picture suggests strongly that, given enough time
,
 
a biota can evolve not just one
 
intelligent species, but many. So complex life should occur abundantly
.
There is a claim that "among the millionsof species which have developed on Earth, only one became intelligent, so intelligence must be a very, very rare event." This is a textbook example of a wrong logical conclusion.
 
All planets in time may produce one or more intelligent species, but they
 
will not appear simultaneously. One will be first. It will look around and find it is the only
 
intelligent species
. Should it be surprised? No! Of course the first one will be alone. Its uniqueness - in principal temporary - says nothingabout the ability of the biota to produce one or more intelligent species.If we assume that Earths are common, and that usually there is enoughtime to evolve an intelligent species before nature tramples on the biota,
 
then
 
 
the optimistic view is that new systems of 
 
intelligent, technology-using creatures appear about once per year. Based on an extrapolation of 
 
our own experience, let's make a guess that a civilization's technology is detectable after 10,000
 
years. In that case, there are at least 10,000 detectable civilizations out there
.
This is a heady result, and veryencouraging to SETI people. On the other hand, taking into account the number and distribution of stars in space, it implies that
 
the nearestdetectable civilizations are about 1,000 light years away, and only one in ten million stars may have
 
a detectable civilization
.
 
These last numbers create a daunting challenge to those who construct instruments and projects to search forextraterrestrial intelligence. No actual observing program carried out so far has come anywhere close to meeting the requirement of detectingreasonable signals from a distance of 1,000 light years, or of studying 10 million stars with high sensitivity.
Donald Brownlee
:
But how often areanimal-habitable planets located in the habitable zones of solar mass stars? Of the all the stars that have now been shown to have planets, alleither have Jupiter-mass planets interior to 5.5 AU or they have Jupiters on elliptical orbits. It is unlikely that any of these stars could retainhabitable zone planets on long-term stable orbits. On the other hand,
 
many of the stars that do not have currently
 
detectable giant planets could have habitable zone planets
.
But even when rocky planets are located in the right place,will they have the "right stuff" for the evolution and long term survival of animal-like life?
 
There are many "Rare Earth"
 
factors
(such as planet mass, abundance of water and carbon, plate tectonics, etc.)
that may play important and even
 
critical roles in allowing the apparently difficult transition from slime to civilization.
 
As is the case in thesolar system, animal-like life is probably uncommon in the cosmos. This might even be the case for microbes: how can scientists agree thatmicrobial life is common in our celestial neighborhood when there is no data? Even the simplest life is extraordinarily complicated and until wefind solid evidence for life elsewhere, the frequency of life will unfortunately be guesswork. We can predict that some planetary bodies willprovide life-supporting conditions, but no one can predict that life will form.
Frank Drake
:
Only about 5% of the stars that have been studiedsufficiently have hot Jupiters or Jupiters in elliptical orbits. The other 95% of the stars studied do not have hot Jupiters, and just what they have is still an open question. The latest discoveries, which depend on observations over a decade or more, are finding solar system analogs. Thissuggests
 
that 95% of the stars
 
- for which the answers are not yet in -
could be similar to our own system
. This
is
 
reason for optimism
 
among those who expect solar system analogs to be abundant.
 The organic materials necessary for life are plentiful-
proves we aren‘t alone
 McKay
,
0
2
NASA Planetary Scientist,
(Christopher, ―Complex Life in the Universe?,‖ 
:
There is no solid evidence of life elsewhere, but several factors suggest it is common.
 
Organic material is
 
widespread in the interstellar medium and in our own solar system. We have found planetary
 
systems around other sun-like stars. On Earth, microbial life appeared very quickly
 
- probably
 
before
 
3.8 billion years ago. Also, we know that microbial ecosystems can survive in a variety of 
 
environments
 
with liquid water and a suitable chemical energy source or sunlight.
These factors suggest
 
that microbial life -
 
the
 
sort of life the dominated Earth for the first two billion years - is widespread in the stellar
 
neighborhood.
 
 
Wichita State 3Tournament 2009 Wipeout
1NC PaRtY
Humans will inevitably destroy the universe- we will isolate multiple scenarios1
st
is TimetravelMatter energy concentrations bend time allowing time travelKaku
 
1994
Michio
 — 
Prof. Of Theoretical Physics @ NYU
 — 
 
(Hyperspace
; pg 234)
 
Einstein‘s equations, we
recall, state that
the curvature or bending of space and time is determined by the
 
matter-energy content of the universe. It is,
in fact
,
possible to find configurations of matter-energy
 
powerful enough to force the bending of time and allow for time travel.
However, the concentrations of matter-energy necessary to bend time backwards are so vast that general relativity breaks down and quantum corrections begin to dominate overrelativity.
Even if the tech doesn‘t exist, its possible
- which means we will do it
 
Pickover
 
1998
Clifford A.
 — 
PhD in Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, associate editor for numerous scientific journals, researchstaff IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Member of SETI League
 — 
 
(
Time: A Traveler’s Guide
; pg 248-249)
 
Various
 
researchers haveproposed ways in which backward and forward time machines can be built that do not seem to
 
violate any known laws of physics. Remember that the laws of physics tell us what is possible, not
 
what is practical for humans at this point in time.
The physics of time travel is still in its infancy. While all physiciststoday admit that time travel to the future is possible, many still believe time travel to the past will never easily be attainable.
 
Don‘t believe
anyone who tells you that humans will
 never
have efficient technology for backward and forward
 
time travel.
Accurately predicting future technology is nearly impossible, and history is filled with underestimates of technology:
Time travel creates loops in time that makes infinite folds in the universe- causes it to endRandall No Date
 
 — 
physics student @ CalTech
--
(Time Travel - the Possibilities and Consequences;http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/alabaster/A398955)
 
This theory involves two types of temporal loops. One type is the loop mentioned in the last paragraph, the 'grandfather paradox'. For the rest of this paragraph, let's call it the 'infinite repeat' loop, because it results in two different possibilities, infinitely repeating after one another. Anothertype of loop exists. It is the 'infinite possibilities' loop. In this loop, the loop changes every single time that the loop repeats. Think of this:
Imagine that you ask your best friend to go back in time to before you were born and kill your
 
granddad. Also, you had enough forethought to tell him to, while he's back there, write a note to his
 
future self to go back in time and kill the man who would be your granddad.
Everything's Okay, right? Maybenot.
When your friend is given the instruction to go and kill your granddad
 from you
,
 
he might do
 
one thing. When he receives a note from
 his future self 
, he might do another. And if he does another
 
thing during the second repeat, he must do a different thing the third.
 
And the forth. And the fifth.
A change
 
in one iteration of the loop would result in a change in the note, which would result in a change inthe next iteration. Eventually, he'll do something that ends up breaking down the loop
(ie, forgetting towrite himself a note).
This will result in a infinite repeat loop starting. And
as was already mentioned,
infiniterepeat
 
loops
may
 
cause the universe to end.
 

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