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Refrigeration Lab Report

Refrigeration Lab Report

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Published by Leejat Pradhan
Lab report of refrigeration lab
Lab report of refrigeration lab

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Published by: Leejat Pradhan on Jun 20, 2012
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06/10/2013

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Refrigeration and AirConditioning LaboratoryReport
 
Name: Leejat Kumar PradhanRoll No : 09ME1055
 
4/18/2012
 
EXPERIMENT No. 1a
Studies on refrigerant compressors
Objective:
Study of reciprocating compressors used in refrigeration and air conditioning applications.
Compressors:
The compressor is the most critical component of a mechanical vapor compression refrigeration system.Classification:Compressors:1. Positive Displacement Type:i)
 
Reciprocatingii)
 
Vaneiii)
 
Screwiv)
 
Scroll2. Rotodynamic Type:i)Centrifugal CompressorThe Reciprocating type of compressor is the mainstay of the refrigeration and air conditioning industry.These compressors are further classified as:i) Open Type compressorii) Hermetically sealed type compressorMain parts of a reciprocating compressor include:i)
 
Cylinder Headii)
 
Valve Plateiii)
 
Inlet and outlet valvesiv)
 
Crank casev)
 
Crank shaftvi)
 
Connecting rodsvii)
 
Pistonviii)
 
Oil return pathix)
 
Seals
 
Discussion:
1)Define stroke, bore, clearance volume and displacement volume of the compressor?The distance traveled by the piston from bottom dead center (BDC) to top dead center (TDC) within thecylinder is known as the stroke of the compressor.The bore is the diameter of the compressor cylinder.
The volume between the piston and the cylinder head when it is at it’s minimum, i.e. when the piston is at
the position of Inner Dead Centre is called the clearance volume.The volume of the compressor may be defined as the volume swept by the piston in its stroke betweenthe bottom and the top dead centers respectively.2) Do the piston rings have a taper? While mounting the ring the sharp edge should be on the top or thebottom?Yes, the piston rings have a taper. While mounting, the sharp edge should be on the bottom.3) In which direction should the piston rings scrap the lubricating oil? If more than one piston ring is usedwhat precautions should be used?Ans>The piston rings should scrap the oil towards the crankcase. The piston ring which is to be farthestfrom the TDC has to be mounted first.4) What are the methods used for capacity control of compressors?Ans> Increasing the amount of clearance volume is a way of decreasing the capacity of compressor.Capacity control of compressor is achieved in reciprocating type compressor by varying speed in enginedriven units through fuel flow control. But speed reduction is limited to 80% of the top speed to provideconstant torque. Capacity control for screw type compressor is done by variable speed and variablecompressor displacement. For the later technique, a slide valve is positioned in the casing that directs aportion of the compressed air to the suction valve when the capacity is reduced.5) What are the safety devices used with refrigerant compressors?Ans>Some of the safety devices used are as follows: 1. Low and high suction pressure cut-off devices 2.Freeze protectors 3. Proofing switches 4. Exhaust fan interlocks 5. Temperature and pressure pop-off valves 6. Low gas pressure cut-off valves6) What type of motors are generally used with refrigerant compressors?Ans>Fordomectic refrigerators, generally a single phase motor is used to drive a hermitic sealedcompressor. For industrial compressors, generally 3 phase motor of higher capacity is used.7) Describe various types of seals used in compressors.Ans> Open type compressors require seals to minimize leakage. These may be of stationary or rotarytypes. The stationary type seal is basically a metallic bellow and a hardened shaft. The rotary type sealemploys a synthetic seal tightly fitted to the shaft which prevents leakage using a carbon nose.8) What are the advantages/disadvantages and applications of open type and hermetic compressors?Ans> Open type compressors are generally installed in higher capacity refrigeration units. The motor andthe compressor are separate units and there are more possibilities of refrigerant leakage so they have tobe serviced frequently. But it has got more efficiency than hermitic sealed compressors. Opencompressors are flexible in terms of speed as they use belt drives. The belt drives also provide safetybecause if the motor attains an excessive high speed the belt snaps. Heat is rejected to the surroundings

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