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Lucture Notes Ucm by Rsq

Lucture Notes Ucm by Rsq

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Published by sundarsuvigs
this is a exam notes of unconventional machining process
this is a exam notes of unconventional machining process

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Published by: sundarsuvigs on Jun 20, 2012
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11/07/2012

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Lecture notes on Unconventional machining process
The working principle of USM:
 
In USM, a tool of desired shape vibrates at an ultrasonic frequency (19
 –
25 KHz) with an amplitude of around 15
 –
50 um over the working piece. Generally the tool is pressed down word with a feed force F,between the tool and work piece.The machining zone is flooded with the abrasive slurry. As tool vibrates over the work piece, theabrasive particles acts as the indenters intend both the work piece and the tool, which would erode thebase material, the machining process takes place.
The factors affecting the MRR:
1)
 
Grain size2)
 
Abrasive material3)
 
Abrasive grain size4)
 
Work piece impact hardness.5)
 
Concentration of slurry6)
 
Amplitude of vibration7)
 
Frequency of vibration.
The types of transducers:
1)
 
Magnetostriction effect2)
 
Piezo electric effect3)
 
Electro strive effect
The types of concentrators:
1)
 
Cone type2)
 
Exponential type3)
 
Stepped type
What is the purpose of concentrators?
The main purpose of concentrators is to increase multi fold of the amplitude of the vibration obtainedfrom the transducers.
 
Different feed mechanism:
1)
 
gravity feed mechanism2)
 
spring loaded feed mechanism3)
 
Pneumatic or hydraulic feed mechanism.
Applications:
Used for machining hard & brittle metallic alloys, semiconductors, glass, ceramic, carbide etc..
Limitations:
1)
 
Low MRR.2)
 
High tool wear3)
 
Low depth of hole.
Abrasive jet machining
Working principle of AJM:
In AJM process, high speed stream of abrasive particles mixed with air or gas are injected through anozzle, thus hitting the work piece directly.The material removal is happening by the repetitive impact of the abrasive mix. Due to repetitiveimpact of the abrasive small chips of material gets loosened and a fresh surface is exposed.
Schematic diagram of Abrasive jet machining process:
 
The machine consists of the following parts;
1)
 
Abrasive mix tank.2)
 
Nozzle.3)
 
Hopper.4)
 
Compressor.5)
 
Vibrating device.
Different types of gases:
1)
 
Nitrogen2)
 
CO23)
 
Compressed air.
Abrasive particles:
1)
 
Aluminum oxide.2)
 
Silicon carbide.3)
 
Glass powder.4)
 
Sodium bi carbonate.
Nozzle material:
1)
 
Tungsten carbide (life: 12
 –
20 hrs).2)
 
Ceramic (300 hrs).
Working arrangement of AJM (fig.3)
 
The abrasive material feed rate is controlled by a vibrating mechanism and coprocessor.
 
To control the size and shape, either work piece or nozzle is moved by a cam mechanism orpantograph mechanism
 
The gas is pressurized by a compressor
 
The pressure of gas will be from 2kg/ cm to 8kg/ cm.
 
The abrasive is fed into the m/c through a hopper to the mixing chamber.
 
The mixture is fed into the nozzle with a velocity of 300m/ sec.
 
The tank is supported by a vibrating mechanism to control the flow of the mixture.

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