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Total Quality Management

Total Quality Management

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Published by: Hanna Cyrille Jarmi Pascua on Jun 20, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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PASCUA, Hanna Cyrille J.BS HTM 3CTotal Quality Management
At its core, Total Quality Management (TQM) is a management approach to long
term success through customersatisfaction.In a TQM effort, all members of an organization participate in improving processes, products, services and theculture in which they work.The methods for implementing this approach come from the teachings of such quality leaders as Philip B. Crosby,W. Edwards Deming, Armand V. Feigenbaum, Kaoru Ishikawa and Joseph M. Juran.
A core concept in implementing TQM is Deming’s 14 points, a set of management practices to help companies
increase their quality and productivity:1.
Create constancy of purpose for improving products and services.2.
Adopt the new philosophy.3.
Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality.4.
End the practice of awarding business on price alone; instead, minimize total cost byworking with a single supplier.5.
Improve constantly and forever every process for planning, production and service.6.
Institute training on the job.7.
Adopt and institute leadership.8.
Drive out fear.9.
Break down barriers between staff areas.10.
Eliminate slogans, exhortations and targets for the workforce.11.
Eliminate numerical quotas for the workforce and numerical goals for management.12.
Remove barriers that rob people of pride of workmanship, and eliminate the annualrating or merit system.13.
Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement for everyone.14.
Put everybody in the company to work accomplishing the transformation.T
he term “Total Quality Management” has lost favor in the United States in recent years: “Quality management” iscommonly substituted. “Total Quality Management,” however, is still used extensively in Europe.
Total Quality Through Six Sigma
Some argue that many of the tools Six Sigma uses are not new. However, while Six Sigma uses conventionalmethods, its application is anything but conventional. Instead it stresses the importance of searching for a new wayof thinking and doing. In fact, Six Sigma defines a clear road map to achieve Total Quality:1.
Leadership Commitment:
Top management not only initiates Six Sigma deployment, it also plays anactive role in the whole deployment cycle. Six Sigma starts by providing senior leadership with training inthe principles and tools it needs to direct the development of a management infrastructure to support SixSigma. This involves reducing the levels of organizational hierarchy and removing procedural barriers toexperimentation and change.2.
Customer Focus:
ems are developed for establishing close communications with “external customers”
(direct customers, end-users, suppliers, regulatory bodies, etc), and with internal customers (employees).From upstream suppliers to ultimate end-users, Six Sigma eliminates the opportunities for defects.3.
Strategic Deployment:
Six Sigma targets a small number of high-financial leveraged items. It focuses the
company’s resources: right support, right people, right project, and right tools, on identifying and
improving performance metrics that relate to bottom-line success.
Integrated Infrastructure:
The Leadership Team defines and reviews project progress. The Championacts as a political leader and removes the barriers for the project team. The Master Black Belt acts as atechnical coach and provides in-depth knowledge of quality tools. The Black Belt controls the project whilethe Green Belt supports the Black Belt - together they form the Six Sigma Project Teams. In addition, theincentive and recognition systems motivate the project teams to achieve the business goals.5.
Disciplined Framework:
Six Sigma projects are implemented using the Measure, Analyze, Improve andControl disciplined road map. This MAIC discipline sets up a clear protocol to facilitate internalcommunication. In addition, from a business perspective, Six Sigma is also a framework for continuousbusiness improvement.6.
Education and Training:
Six Sigma believes that true commitment is driven by true understanding. As afact-based methodology, it intensively utilizes quality and statistical tools to transform a practical problemto a practical solution. Thus, a top-to-bottom training is conducted in Six Sigma philosophy and systemimprovement techniques for all levels.
In conclusion, Six Sigma’s approach and deployment makes it distinguishable from other quality initiatives. The Six
Sigma approach involves the use of statistical tools within a structured methodology for gaining the knowledgeneeded to achieve better, faster, and less expensive products and services than the competition. The repeated,disciplined application of the master strategy on project after project, where the projects are selected based on keybusiness objectives, is what drives dollars to the bottom line, resulting in impressive profits. Moreover, fueled by thebottom line improvement, top management will continuously be committed to this approach, the work culture willbe constantly nurtured, customers will definitely be satisfied, and Total Quality will ultimately be achieved.
Six Sigma VS. Total Quality Management (TQM)
In some aspects of quality improvement, TQM and Six Sigma share the same philosophy of how to assistorganizations to accomplish Total Quality. They both emphasize the importance of top-management support andleadership. Both approaches make it clear that continuous quality improvement is critical to long-term businesssuccess. However, why has the popularity of TQM waned while Six Sigma's popularity continues to grow in the pastdecade?T. Pyzdek (Why Six Sigma is Not TQM, 2001) stated that the primary difference is management. Unlike TQM, SixSigma was not developed by technicians who only dabbled in management and therefore produced only broadguidelines for management to follow. The Six Sigma way of implementation was created by some of America'smost gifted CEOs - people like Motorola's Bob Galvin, Allied Signal's Larry Bossidy, and GE's Jack Welch. Thesepeople had a single goal in mind: making their businesses as successful as possible. Once they were convinced thattools and techniques of Six Sigma could help them do this, they developed a framework to make it happen.The differences between TQM and Six Sigma are summarized in Table 7.1.
Table 7.1: TQM vs. Six SigmaTQM
Six Sigma
 A functional specialty within the organization. An infrastructure of dedicated change agents. Focuseson cross-functional value delivery streams rather thanfunctional division of labour.Focuses on quality. Focuses on strategic goals and applies them to cost,schedule and other key business metrics.Motivated by quality idealism. Driven by tangible benefit far a major stockholder group(customers, shareholders, and employees).Loosely monitors progress toward goals. Ensures that the investment produces the expectedreturn.People are engaged in routine duties
“Slack” resources are created t
o change key business

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