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Squares of Rep-Digit Numbers

Squares of Rep-Digit Numbers

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Published by: vprasad_nalluri3656 on Jun 20, 2012
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02/19/2013

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 1(Contributed by Sri.N.Vijaya Prasad,Retired Principal,Andhra Pradesh Education Service)SQUARES OF REP-DIGITED NUMBERS_______________________________________Sri V.Srinivasan in his article"The Seven's wonder" which appeared in Ganitha ChandrikaVol 8,Issue4,Year 2000,Pages 9-12,has evolved a technique called "Choodamani Method" for quicklycomputing the squares of rep-digit numbers of any length.While complementing him for the same,I suggestthe following alternative in arriving at the answer in perhaps less time.We start off with some simple observations:(1) All products of pairs of single digits (with repetitions allowed) can be written in the form ab (written inthe decimal, positional notation) where a is in the 10
th
place (it can be 0), b is in the units place.e.g . 2x3=06,3x3=09,5x5=25,9x8=72 and so on.(2) If a number N has the same digit n repeated m times,then its square has atmost2m digits,and we can always write it as a 2m- digited number , with 0 in the left-most place, if necessary.e.g.2x2=04,4x4=16,11x11=0121, 22x22=0484,33x33=1089 etc.(3) We may need to find out products of the form 222x444.Here too the answer can be written as a 6-digited number,namely,098568.Now let us familiarize with the conventions that we are going to adopt and discuss the techniques.(1) Suppose we need to find the square of the rep-digit number 7777 where 7 is repeated four times. Theanswer consists of atmost eight digits. The following sequence of steps is followed:Step 1:7x7=49.We write the incomplete form of the answer as 4……9(as if we stretch the space between 4and 9 and intersperse with six dots corresponding to the six places to be filled up)Step 2:We need the sum 4+9 i.e.13 for the purpose of repeated addition indicated below:4,4+13, (4+13)+13,((4+13)+13)+13) i.e.4,17,30,43.We have added 13 repeatedly till the fourth place isfilled up.Step 3:We prefer to write the terms of the sequence 4,17,30,43 thus:4 7 0 31 3 4wherein the digits in the units place are retained in the top row and the digits in the tenth place are loweredvertically.The remaining four places (with 9 already in the last place) are filled up as explained in the next few steps:Step 4:We note that in Step 1 we have to “add 5” to get 9 from 4. We need this “5” for repeated additionto be again performed as indicated in the next step:Step 5: In Step 3 we got the sums 4,17,30,43.To fill the remaining three places in the sequence4,17,30,43,…,9 find 43+5,30+5,17+5 in that order (note that already 4+5 i.e.9 is in the last place).Togetherwith 9 already in the last place we obtain respectively 48, 35, 22,9 which is rewritten as per the conventionstated in Step 3 as8 5 2 94 3 2Step 6:We juxtapose this arrangement in Step 56 to the right of the arrangement obtained in Step 3 to getthe scheme4 7 0 3 8 5 2 91 3 4 4 3 2Step 7:Starting from the rightmost digit 9 we write the answer from right to left performing the operation“carry each lowered digit for adding to the immediately next left upper row digit” whenever necessary.This way we get starting from 9 {in the reverse order)9,2,7,11,7,4,10,5 which written in the original order reads 5,10,4,7,11,7,2,9 .As done in Step 3 we rewritethem as5 0 4 7 1 7 2 91
 
1Step 8:Proceeding as in Step 7 we write the final answer (starting from the last digit 9 and proceeding fromthe left to the right) as 60481729 which is indeed the square of 7777.(2) Next we consider another example.
 
 2Suppose we want to find the square of 88888.Here 8x8=64,6+4=10,6 “minus” “2” gives 4. So followingthe procedure outlined above we write the rows thus:6 6 6 6 6 4 4 4 4 41 2 3 4 4 3 2 1[resulting from 6,16,26,36,46,44,34,24,14,4 i.e. 6,16,26,36,46, followed by46-2,36-2,26-2,16-2,6-2 i.e.44,34,24,14,4 respectively.(Note that 2 is ‘subtracted’ in this case)]The answer written from right to left, after the “left carry and add” process turns out to be 790107654(3)We compute some exceptional cases e.g . the square of 1111111111Here 1 is repeated 10 times. Note 1x1=01,0+1=1,0 “added “to”1” gives 1.We get the following schemefollowing the rules:0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 11So the answer is 1234567900987654321(4)To work out a product of the type 2222x3333 we proceed thus:2x3=06,0+ 6=6,0 “added” to “6” gives 6We have the scheme 0 6 2 8 4 8 2 61 1 2 1 1giving the answer 7405926(5)Though for the sake of clarity and explanation , so many steps are detailed, the entire process can bemostly carried out in the mind itself and the answer arrived at quickly.(i)To illustrate suppose we require the square of 66666666.The mental process of computation is as follows:6 squared is “36” // 3+6 is “9” // we have to “add” “3” to 3 to get 6 // given number is “eight” digited,soanswer is “sixteen”digited // to get the first eight places of the answer;begin with 3 and go on adding “9”repeatedly till the first eight places are filled up;to get the next eight places of the answer:go on adding“3”to the 8
th
,7
th
,6
th
,.. ,3
rd
,2
nd
,1
st
terms in that order and enter the sums obtained as 9
th
,10
th
,11
th
,…,15
th
,16thterms resulting in the sequence 3,12,21,30,39,48,57,66,69,60,51,42,33.24,15,6 written as3 2 1 0 9 8 7 6 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 61 2 3 3 4 5 6 6 6 5 4 3 2 1answer written from backwards i.e.from right to left as 4444444355555556(ii)As another illustration consider the square of 8888.8 squared is 64 // 6+4 is “10” // we have to”subtract” “2” from 6 to get 4 // answer eight digited // scheme is 6 6 6 6 4 4 4 4 to get the answer as 78996544.1 2 3 3 2 1(iii)Let us compute finally the square of 777777777 (here 7 is repeated nine times)7 squared is 49 // 4+ 9 is “13” // 4 “+5” is 9 // for the eighteen-digited answer start with 4, end with 9 // arrive at the two-rowed arrangement4 7 0 3 6 9 2 5 8 3 0 7 4 1 8 5 2 9 // 1 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 11 10 8 7 6 4 3 2giving the answer 604938270395061729(6)An important observation:As far as finding the squares of rep-digit numbers involving 9 ,Vedictechnique remains the best and fastest.e.g.Square of 999999 is immediately written as 999998000001 i.e. the given number less one,followed byfive(six less one) zeroes and a 1.(7)There is yet another less cumbersome, more time-saving modification to quickly compute the squares of rep- digited numbers :Consider the square of 77777.49 is the square of 7. 4 added to 9 is “13”.The 10-digited answer is written in a single row simultaneouslyin both forward and back-ward directions filling up the blank spaces “in pairs” thus:4, - - - - - - - - , 9 ,4,17,- - - - - -,22,9,4,17,30,.- - - - ,35,22,94,17,30,43,- -,48,35,22,9,4,17,30,43,56,61,48,35,22,9(in practice, we need write only the last row)This gives rise to the scheme4 7 0 3 6 1 8 5 2 9

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