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Strength of Marine Propeller Blades

Strength of Marine Propeller Blades

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Published by: Lijo Thoams on Jun 20, 2012
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Lloyd'sRegisterTechnicalAssociation
THESTRENGTHOFMARINEPROPELLERBLADES
J.S.CarltonPaperNo.2.Session1980-81
 
THESTRENGTHOFMARINEPROPELLERBLADES
by
J.
S.CARLTON
SUMMARY
Thispaperexplorestherecentadvanceswhichhavebeenmadeintheunderstandingofthefactorsinfluencingpropellerbladestrength.Considerationisgiventoboththeaspectsofstressanalysisandmaterialproperties.
In
additiontoexaminingthecharacteristicsofcon-ventionalpropellerformscertainoftheaspectsrelevanttothestrengthofducted,controllablepitchandskewedpropellerbladesareconsidered.Theenvironmentalin-fluencesrelatingtobladestrengtharealsomentioned.Techniquesforthemeasurementofpropellerbladestressesarediscussedincludingthenewunderwatertele-metrymethoddevelopedbytheSociety.Thecorrelationbetweenfullscaleresultsandcalculationproceduresisalsoindicated.
INTRODUCTION
Verynearlyhalfacenturyhaselapsedsincethelasttechnicalpaper(1)devotedtothesubjectofmarinepro-pellerswaspresentedtothisAssociation.
In
commonwithallotherbranchesoftechnology,theinterveningyearshaveseenconsiderableadvancesintheunderstandingofallaspectsofthissubject.Theseadvances,whichtosomeextentrelyontheabilitytoundertakecomplexanalyticalprocedures,naturallyowemuchtothedevelopmentofthedigitalcomputer.However,itisinterestingandperhapsalsoalittlecomforting,tonotethatthebasiccalculationproceduresthatweredevelopedsometwentyorthirtyyearsagoarestillwidelyusedasthebasisforthedesignofmosttypesofpropeller.Althoughthepropellernormallylieswellsubmergedoutofsightandthereforetosomeextentalsooutofmind,itisadeceptivelycomplexcomponentinboththehydro-dynamicandstructuralsense.Indeed,oftenonefindsthatthehydrodynamic,strengthandmanufacturingrequire-mentsforaparticulardesignareindirectconflict,therebynecessitatingsomedegreeofcompromisebetweentheseopposingconstraints-assuchitistheattainmentofthiscompromisewhichtypifiestheessenceofgoodpropellerdesign.Thesubjectofpropellerstrength,thefoundationsofwhichwerelaidintheearlyyearsofthiscentury,examinesthetwocomplementaryaspectsofpropellerstressanalysisandtherelationshipofthesestressestothepropertiesofthematerialsfromwhichthepropellerismanufactured.Bothoftheseaspectsareworthyofindividualattentionintheirownrightandindeeditwasoriginallytheintentionthatthispapershouldbedevotedsolelytobladestressanalysis.However,suchatreatmentwouldofnecessitybeincompleteandthetextwasexpandedtoincludeareviewofthebehaviourandpropertiesoftheprincipalpropellermaterials.Priortotherapidincreaseinshippoweringwhichoc-curredduringthemid1950'stheincidenceofbladefailureshadnotbeenamajorproblem,sincesuchfailuresasdidoccurcouldbeeasilyexplainedinthelightofthethenpresentknowledge.However,thesmallbutneverthelesssignificantproportionoffailureswhichbegantoemergefromaboutthattimeservedtounderlinethelackofap-preciationandunderstandingofthefluctuatingforceswhichactedonthepropeller,andtheinfluencethattheseforceshadonfatiguelifeofthematerialofmanufacture.
In
responsetothatsituationextensiveinternationalre-
T.D.C.
180
0
ContoursofequalaxialvelocitycomponentsVx/V
Vectorlength~correspondsto0,1fractionoftheshipspeedVelocity
vectors
inplaneofpropeller
FIG.1
TypicalModelWakeFieldDefinition,
 
searchhasbeenundertaken,anditisthoseaspectsofthisresearchwhichhavecontributedtothegeneralunder-standingofthesubjectofpropellerstrengththatformthebasisofthispaper.Consequenty,ratherthanbreaknewground,theensuingdiscussionseekstodrawthevariousfacetsofthesubjecttogetherinonedocument.Anappreciationoftheproblemsunderlyingpropellerbladestrengthcannotbegainedwithoutfirstgivingcon-siderationtotheenvironmentinwhichthepropellerop-erates.Thisisbecauseitistheenvironment,principallyintheformofthewakefield,whichinducesthevariablehydrodynamicloadsthatthepropellerbladeexperiencesduringeachrevolution.Consequently,thepapercommenceswithabriefexaminationofthenatureofthebladeloadingpriortoconsideringthemainthemeofstressanalysisandmaterialproperties.
2
BLADELOADINGS
2.1
HydrodynamicComponents
Thehydrodynamiccomponentsofpropellerbladeload-ingareprincipallydeterminedbythecharacteristicsofthewakefieldinwhichthepropelleroperates.Thesecharacter-isticsarepeculiartoeachvesselanddependnotonlyupontheshipspeedandhullgeometrybutalsouponsuchsteadystateoperationalvariablesasdraught,trimandthedepthofwaterbelowthevessel.Non-steadystateconditions,astypifiedbyroughweather,obviouslyhaveaneffectonthebladeloadingbutasyettheseconditionsarenotrigorouslytakenintoaccount.Thepredictionofthewakefieldcharacteristicsfrompurelytheoreticalconsiderationsiscurrentlythesubjectofconsiderableresearch.Consequently,atthepresenttime,forpropellerdesignpurposes,emphasisisplacedupontheresultsofmodeltestsobtainedfromtowingtankstudies.Atypicalspecificationofawakefieldthatwouldbeobtainedfromtowingtankmeasurementsinthiscaserelatingtoatwinscrewferry,isshowninFig.1.From
Totalwakeat
x
=
r/RSteadyormeancomponentat
x
=
/R
o
90180270360Angularposition(deg)
v,
V
10.---,----,--,-----,
Vx
V
1,0
I
h
r
1\
I
\
J
\
0,80,8
J:::::=1==1==t==1
0,60,6
1---+--+--+-----1
0,40,4
I----t--+---t--i
0,20,21-'------11---+---+---1
o
90180270360Angularposition(deg)(N.B.0/360degreesindicateT.D.C.positioninpropellerdisc)
thesediagramsacompletedescriptionintermsofthespeedanddirectionofthewaterenteringthepropellerdiscatanypointcanbeobtained,althoughinpracticeonlytheaxialandtangentialvelocitycomponentstendtobeusedduetothemathematicalproblemsinvolvedindealingwiththeradialcomponents.Indeedsomewakesurveysrecordonlytheaxialvelocitycomponentssincethesearethemajorvariation.However,thispracticeisnottobere-commendedsincethetangentialcomponentshaveasmallbutneverthelessimportantinfluence,especiallywherecavitationconsiderationsareinvolved.SincetheshipandmodelarerunatdifferentReynolds'Numberstheirboundarylayershavedifferentrelativethicknesses.Therefore,ifmodelwakedataexists,itisclearlydesirabletoattemptaconversionofthisinfor-mationintoitsequivalentfullscaleform,themethodsofSasajimaandHoekstrabeingthemostcommonlyusedforthispurpose.Unfortunately,thesemethodsarelargelyunsubstantiatedbydirectshipmodelcorrelationduetotheproblemsexperiencedwhenundertakingfullscalewakemeasurements.Nevertheless,theirusehasbeenshowntoimprovethecorrelationofthoseotherparametersthatcanbemorereadilymeasuredandwhicharedirectlyattribut-abletothewakefield.Inordertodeterminethebladeloadingsthewakefieldisdecomposedintobothsteadyandfluctuatingcom-ponents,thisseparationbeingundertakenateachradialstationwherecalculationsaretobemade.Formanycal-culationpurposes,especiallywherethemoreadvancedformsofhydrodynamicanalysisareinvolved,thefluctuat-ingcomponentisfurthersplitintoitsconstituenthar-monics.ThisprocessofwakefielddecompositionisshownschematicallybyFig.2inwhichtheaxialwakedistri-butionatagivenradialstationforasinglescrewvesselisconsidered.Whenconsideringthesemodelwakefieldsintermsoftheirconstituentharmonicsitisimportant,iferroneousresultsaretobeavoided,toappreciatetheex-perimentalaccuracyofthisdata.Normallytherefore,onlythefirsteightorsoharmonicsareconsidered.
Fluctuatingcomponentatx
=
/R(Equaltosumofharmonics)
+
Vx
+02~
Ii
-0,2.0,4
+O~ffi
,2
/
'\
r
-020
I
\1/
_\
-
01
+
3rdharmonic
:o'J==t~=j
0,2
~
\
0'1+4thharmonic-0.40:0'1~/\
vo,j/'v/\~
0180270360Angularposition(deg)+0'1+5thharmonic
,t
-=-
0+00~
-01
'0
Q
o;;;:;iI'
Q
,0180360
+
-,
,
t
etc.
FIG.2
DecompositionofWakeFieldintoMeanandFluctuatingComponents,
2

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