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Syntax ~ a formal introduction, 2nd ed., 2003.pdf

Syntax ~ a formal introduction, 2nd ed., 2003.pdf

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Published by Ram Lohani

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Published by: Ram Lohani on Jun 20, 2012
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10/15/2014

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June 14, 2003
Syntactic Theory:A Formal Introduction
Second EditionIvan A. Sag Thomas WasowEmily M. Bender
June 14, 2003
CENTER FOR THE STUDYOF LANGUAGEAND INFORMATION
 
June 14, 2003
Contents
Preface xvii1 Introduction 1
1.1 Two Conceptions of Grammar 11.2 An Extended Example: Reflexive and Nonreflexive Pronouns 31.3 Remarks on the History of the Study of Grammar 71.4 Why Study Syntax? 9
1.4.1 A Window on the Structure of the Mind 91.4.2 A Window on the Mind’s Activity 111.4.3 Natural Language Technologies 14
1.5 Phenomena Addressed 161.6 Summary 181.7 Further Reading 181.8 Problems 19
2 Some Simple Theories of Grammar 21
2.1 Introduction 212.2 Two Simplistic Syntactic Theories 22
2.2.1 Lists as Grammars 222.2.2 Regular Expressions 23
2.3 Context-Free Phrase Structure Grammar 262.4 Applying Context-Free Grammar 29
2.4.1 Some Phrase Structure Rules for English 292.4.2 Summary of Grammar Rules 32
2.5 Trees Revisited 332.6 CFG as a Theory of Natural Language Grammar 352.7 Problems with CFG 36
2.7.1 Heads 362.7.2 Subcategorization 37vii
 
June 14, 2003
viii
/ Syntactic Theory
2.7.3 Transitivity and Agreement 38
2.8 Transformational Grammar 402.9 What Are Grammars Theories Of? 422.10 Summary 432.11 Further Reading 442.12 Problems 44
3 Analyzing Features of Grammatical Categories 49
3.1 Introduction 493.2 Feature Structures 503.3 The Linguistic Application of Feature Structures 59
3.3.1 Feature Structure Categories 593.3.2 Words and Phrases 593.3.3 Parts of Speech 613.3.4 Valence Features 623.3.5 Reformulating the Grammar Rules 653.3.6 Representing Agreement with Features 693.3.7 The Head Feature Principle 72
3.4 Phrase Structure Trees 74
3.4.1 The Formal System: an Informal Account 743.4.2 An Example 78
3.5 Summary 833.6 The Chapter 3 Grammar 84
3.6.1 The Type Hierarchy 843.6.2 Feature Declarations and Type Constraints 843.6.3 Abbreviations 853.6.4 The Grammar Rules 853.6.5 The Head Feature Principle (HFP) 863.6.6 Sample Lexical Entries 86
3.7 Further Reading 883.8 Problems 88
4 Complex Feature Values 93
4.1 Introduction 934.2 Complements 94
4.2.1 Syntactic and Semantic Aspects of Valence 944.2.2 The COMPS Feature 954.2.3 Complements vs. Modifiers 984.2.4 Complements of Non-verbal Heads 98
4.3 Speciers 1004.4 Applying the Rules 103

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