STANFORD HISTORY EDUCATION GROUP sheg.stanford.edu
Were African Americans free during Reconstruction? In what ways?
What does it mean to be free?
Based on these documents, was Reconstruction a success or failure?
Citations Document A U.S. Constitution, Amendments 13-15. Retrieved from http://www.senate.gov/civics/constitution_item/constitution.htm#amendments. Document B Opelousas, Louisiana, black code, July 3, 1865. In Senate executive documents for the first session of the thirty-ninth Congress of the United States of America, 1865-1866 (pp. 92-93). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/senateexecutived00unit Document C Senate Report 693, 46
Reprinted in Dorothy Sterling, editor,
The Trouble They Seen: The Story of Reconstruction in the Words of African Americans,
New York: Da Capo Press, 1994. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/reconstruction/sharecrop/ps_adams.html
Document D Portraits retrieved from the Library of Congress website, http://www.loc.gov/index.html. Document E Sidney Andrews quoted in the
Joint Report on Reconstruction, (1866) pp. 174. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/jointreconstruct00congrich
We thank Professor Walter Parker at the University of Washington's College of Education for helping us see the enduring value of the SAC approach in the history classroom.