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NACA-TR-818

NACA-TR-818

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Published by: Mike von Bertouch on Jun 21, 2012
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REPORTNo.818
ANEXPERIMENTALINVESTIGATIONOFRECTANGULAREXHAUST-GASEJECiORSAPPLICABLEFORENGINECOOLING
ByEUGEiXiJ.
MANGANIEILO
andDONALDBOGA~EKY*
SUMMARY#
Anexperimentalinvestigationofrectangularezhaust-gasejectorpump8wasconducted
to
proridedatathutuwuldserreaaaguidetothedesignofejectorapplicationforaircrajlenfl”nesm“thmarginalcooling.T%epumpingcharacteristicsofrectangularejectorsactuated@theexhaustofastngle-yh%deraircrafrengineuwedeterminedforarangeofejectormizing-sectionareafromi?Oto60squareinches,orer-a[[lengthfromIi?to@inches,a&pectratiofrom1to6,diffusingem-tareafrom20to81squareinches,andexhaud-nozzleaspectratiofrom1to@.Afewtestswereconductedwithan@i-.@eejector,adiridedejector,cdanejectorincorporatingbendsa[ongitslength.
With
adecreaseinthequanti~ofairpumpedandanin-crea~einthelengthofejector,theejectorpre8swreri8eincrea~estooptimumca[ue8.(lptimurnraluesofejectorareawere,foundtodependuponma8s-@wratioofairtoexhau8tga8for~irenengineoperatingcondition.fiffuser-em-tsectionscml.-~derablyimproredtheperformanceoftheejectors.Anarrangementofastraightmixing8ectionwithadiffumngem-tandaJattenedexhaustnozzleprwidedthemostfarorableejectorperformance.Anejectorcomposedof
a
8traighimitingwctionof%&inchlengthand%quare-inchareaunthadijiwingez-dofIi?-inchlengthand1.87.em”krea+nirance-arearatiopro.ridedaprewureriseof6inchesofwaterforamassjlowofairrepre8entatireofcoofingregwiremente(s&timesthema88flowofezhau8tgas]fortheenginewhenoperatedatacruisepowerof86indicatedhorsepower.Asimpli$edanalysi8,whichconsiderstheeffectofpeti.nentejectortariab[esandindicatestheperformanceintermsofknownengnequantities,wmade.Theagreementbetweentheoryandexperimentwxzsfairimertherangeofejectorcon-jiguration8tested,exceptthata8eriou8di~crepan~~exitiedinthattheoptimumejectorareaspremribed~theo~weresmallerandthera[ue8ofpeakpre.wmerisepredictedatthe8malloptimumareaswerehigherthanindicatedbythete8t8,
INTRODUCTIONThecoolingproblemhasbeenoneofthemainobstaclestotheattainmentofhighpoweroutputswithmodernair-cooledaircraftengines.Adequatecoolingontheground,inclimb,andinlong-rangecruisehasbeendifficulttoobtaininmostsubmergedandpusher-typeinstallations,andinsomehigh-performancetractorinstallations.Thepossi-bilityoftheuseofejectorpumpsactuatedbytheengineexhausthasbeensuggestedasameansofprovidingtheadditionalcooling-airpressuredroprequiredininstallationswithmargimdcooling.Someexperimentalinvestigationsoftheejectorprinciplehavebeenmadeinconnectionwithaircraftproblems.Ref-erences1and
2
presentresultsofejectortestswithregardtojet-thrustaugmentation.Thet+stswereconducted,forthemostpart.,withsmall-sctdemodelsactuatedbycom-pressedairundersteady-flowconditions.bimretigationofthedesignandoperatingconditionsofsmalkwdecom-pressed-airejectors,theresultsofwhicharepertinenttotheirpumpingaswelIastotheirthrust-augmentationcharac-teristics,hasbeenconductedattheUnitedA&aftCorpora-tion.Inreference3resultsarepresentedofapreliminaryinvestigationmadetodeterminethesuitabilityofejectomactuatedbytheexhaustofaradiaIaircraftengineforpro-vidingenginecoolingairatthegroundcondition.Thepressuredropsrealizedwithsomeoftheejectorcombinationinvestigatedinreference3wereofsignificantmagnitudeforcooling.TedsmadeattheAorthmpAircraft.,Inc.ofanumberofexhaust-ejectorsystemsforcoolingaircraftengimsshowedthatappreciableimprovementincoohgcouldbeobtainedbytheuseofejectors.Inviewoftheresultspresentedinreferences1to3andofthegeneralinterestinejectorcoolingaugmentation,*epresentinvestigationwasconductedatLangleyField,Ya.,inthefallof
1942
toobtainadditionalquantitative
informa-
tionontheperformanceofexhaust-gasejectorpumpsandtoprovided~ndatafortheapplicationofejectorstoaircraft-engineinstallations.ThepublicationoftheresultswasdelayedbythetransferofthestaffandequipmenttoC1eveland,Ohio.Theexperimentalworkwasperformedonejectomofrec-tangularcrosssectionactuatedbytheexhaustfromasingle-cyIinderaircraftengine.Thepumpingcharacteristifxofejectorsofvariousareaweredeterminedforarangeofkngth,aspectratio,diflusingetit,andshapeofexhaustnozzIeEjectorsofrectangularcrosssectionweretestedbecauseif-wasfeltthatthisapproximateshapewouldreatiylenditselttoinstallationonenginecowlsofconventionalconfiguration.Enginepowerw-aslimitedtoaboutthecruisevalue
(70
percentrated).Asimplifiedtheoreticalanalysiswasmadethatindicate3ejectorperformanceintermsofLmownengineandexhaus@asquantities.161
 
162
REPOFKl!NO.8
18—NATIONAL
ADVISORYCOMIKITTEEFORAERONAUTICSANALYSISAnejectorisadeviceinwhichthekineticenergyofonefluidisusedtopumpanotherfluidfromaregionoflowpres-suretoaregionofhighpressure.Inthepresentapplication,considerationisgiventotheuseofthehigh-velocityexhaust-gasjetsthatissuefromtheindividualexhauststacksofthecy~indersofanaircraftengineforpumpingcoolingairfromtherearoftheenginetotheatmosphere.Theeffectofejectoraction,then,istoreducethestaticpressurebehindtheengineandthustoincrease.ficpressuredropavailableforcoohg.Ejectoractionisaffectedbythetransferofmomentumbetweenthehigh-velocityexhaust-gasjetandtholow-velocityairinthemixingsection.Anejectormaybedesignedforconstantpressurethrough-outthemixingsection,inwhichcaseithaslittlevalueasapump;ontheotherhand,aconstant-areamixingsectionper-mitsoperationwithapressureriseandisthereforeperti-nenttothepresentapplication.Theadditionofadiffusingexittotheconstant-areamixingsectionresultsinafurtherpressureriseowingtotheconversionofvelocityhead.Atheoreticalequationforthepreseurc.riseacrossthe~jectorisderivedintheappendixandincorporatestheassumptionsthatfollow.Theexhaustprocessinanengineisanintermittentoneinwhichthemass-flowrate,thevelocity,andthereforethemomentumoftheexhaustgasvarycyclically.Conse-quently,theinflowingairandtheoutflowingmixtureintheejec.toractuatedbythee.shauatgaswillbeofapulsatingnature.Theeffectofthepulsatingexhaustgasistakenintoaccountbytheuseofameaneffectiveexhaust-gasvelocityVe,whichisintroducedinreference
4
astheequiv-alentvelocitythat,whenmultipliedbythesteady-flowaveragemass-flowrateofexhaustgas,wouldproducethe
r
averagemomentumobtainedbythrustmcmuuwwnis,Unfortunatelyasimilartreatmentisnotreadilynpplimlktotheairthatentemandthemixturethatleavestheejector.Inviewofthecomplicat.ednatureofthopulsatingairnndthemixtureflowandtheirdcpcmdenceuponmass-flowrate,ejectordimensions,andengineoperatingconditions,stmdy-flowvahesareassumed.Inasmuchasthepulsaticmsintheairflowarcdampedrelativetithoseexistinginthecxhnust-gasfloy,thedeviationsincurredbytheforegoingassump-tionshouldnotbeserious.TheassumptionsofcompleteinkingrmdabseuccofN-d]frictiouaremade.ThepressureriseobtainedwithmlejectoristhenexpectedLObesomewhatlessthanthatpredictedbytheory.Inanachudejector,boththedcgwrofcompletenessofmisingnndthefrictioulossesimwmsrwithincreaseofejectorlength.Thepressurerim,however,MsoaffectedbytheseopposingftichmaMtoproduceanoptimumlength.Theadditionalassumptionofadniformvclocit.ydistri-butionacrowtheejectorareaispostulated.Actually,tlwairenteringthemixingsectionisaccclmatcdbycentWAwiththehigh-velocitye.xhuust-gnsjetwiththeresulttlm[theejectorcross-sectionalmeasurroundingthejetis
more
effectiveinconductingthemassflowofgasmtlkm1hrwwaadjacenttothowalls.Thecffoctivcflowareanmybefurtherdecreasedbytheincreasedflow.resistanceofMcornerregionsoftherechmgularejector.lhmcc,tlwobservedpressureriseswillnotbecompatiblcwiththetheoreticalpressurerisesforanejcctirofthoL3mnemm.Amorefavorablecomparisonisposaiblowitltlworcticnlpressurerisesforaomcarbitrarilyreducednrra.Theexpressionforthepre9surcriseacrosstheeject.orsubjecttothefomgoingwxmmpt.ions,asdrrived
inthe
appendix,isgivenbyequation(19),(19)Thesymbolsusedinthisequationaredefiedintheappendix.ThisequatiouwillbeconsideredasthegeneraIexpressionforevrduat.ingtheperformanceofthetcs[edejectorsbothwithandwithoutadiffuserc.xit;fornondiffusingejectors,thediffuserfactorBisequaltoO.IfthedtierenceinspecificheatandgasconstantofairandexhmstgasisncghwtcdandtlwamaoftlwCX1]WWIWIWjetissmall(thatis,tliefactoraaccountingforthereductionoftheejector-entmnccareaduetot1111rusenccoftIN*cxhausL,-gasjetisunity)equation(19)maybcsimplifiedto,.whichmaybeexpressedasIntherangeofejectoropcrat.ionofpracticalinterest,inthepresentappliqation,the
usc
ofequation
(20)
introducesslightdeviationsfromthepressurerisespredictedbyequation
(19),
 
INVESTIGATIONOFRECTANGULAREXHAUST-GASEJECTORSFORE.NGiNECOOLING
163
Ifanondtiusingorstraightejectorisfitconsidered,inspectionofgeneralequation(19)indicatesthatthepressureriseisafunctionofseveralvmittbles;namely,areaofejector,mass-flowrateandmeaneffectivevelocityofexl.must--gasjet,mass-flowratioofairtoe.xbaustgasM=/M.,densityofair,andtemperatureratioofeshaustgastoair.InthepresentappIication,Wofthevwriablesexceptejectorareaarespeci-fiedormeknownfromthedesiredengineoperatingcondi-tions.Themass-flowrateofexhaustgasisspecifiedbyenginepowerandthemass-flowrateofcoolQairisknownfromthecooIingcharacteristicsoftheengine.(Represen-tativevaluesofM=/M,liebetween6and9.)Thetempera-tureandthedensityoftheairaredeterminedbytheejector-Metconditions.~representativevalueof
1500°
Fmaybeusedforthetemperatureoftheexhaustgasinasmuchmlarge-rariationsfromthisv-aluehaveinappreciableeffectupontheresults.Ihevelocityoftheexhaust-gasjetisdeterminedbytheengineoperatingconditionsandbytheareaoftheexhaust-gasnozzIe.Formaximumejectorper-formance,smallnozzleareasareindicated;theminimumnozzleareais,however,Limitedbyconsiderateionsofengine-power10SS.Reference4pro-i-idesinformationfordetermin-ingtheminimumpermieddenozzleareaandalsothemeaneffectiveeshaust-gasvelocityfromtheengineoperatingcondltions.Themeaneffectivevelocityisthe-dueob-tninedbydividingtheaverageeshmst-gasthrust,asmeas-uredwithatarget,bytheaveragemass-flowrateofexhaust.gas;hence,itis&ectlyapplicabletothe,ejectorequation.Whenthevaluesoftheforegoingvariablesareinsertedinthegeneralequation,thepressureriseisreducedtoafunc-tionoftheareaoftheform
AAAJ.
whereC1andCZareconstants.Forad~userejector,thisequationismodifiedsimplybyareductionintheabsolutevalueofthenegativetermtoanextent.determinedbytheexpansionratioofthediffuser.Thetheoreticalcurveswereobtainedfromequation(19).Inthecrdculationofthetheoreticalcurvesforcomparisonwiththetestresults,thefollowing-dueswereused:MrwMorirateofe.shaustge+poundsperminute----------t3
Neaneffectiveexhapst+~velocity(obtainedfromreference4forthe2.6sqin.nozzIeareaandtheatmosphericeshaustused),f&tpersecoll&--------------------------------1625Densityofair(atmospheric),siugspercubicfoot----------O.00232Temperatureofeshaustgss,IF--------------------------15cmTemperatureofsir(a\-eragevaluemaintainedthroughouttests],OF-------------------------------------------75SPecMcheatofexhauat-s,Btuperpoundper
OF---------0.29Specificheatofair,BtuperuoundperIF-----------------0.24Gas
constantofexhaustgiw,foot-poundsperpoundperOF--56.4Gsscomtantofair,foot-poundsperpoundperF---------53.3Diffuser-loss~fficient----------------------------------CL15
Theperformanceofejectorsofv-ariousarea-wasthencalculatedforarangeof.lQ.11,from3to16.
APPARATUSANDMETHODS
Thetest-enginesetupandtheauxdiaryequipmentusedforthisinvestigationareshownin@ure1andthearrange-mentoftheapparatusisfurtherindicateddiagrammaticallyinfigure2.ThesingIe-cylindertestenginewasan182&G
FIGCZZl.—EJecfmsetup.
enginemod~edtooperatewithonlyonecylinder.Theair-cooledcyIinderwasenclosedinasheet-metaljacketopenattheflontandconnectedatthereartoamotor-drkencentri-fugalblowerthatpro-i-idedthenecessaryenginecooIingair.&eIectricdynamometerwasusedtoloadtheengineandtomeasuretheenginetorque.Enginespeedwasmeasuredbyanelectricallyoperatedrevolutioncounterandastopwatch.Thecharge-air\reightflowoftheenginewasmeasuredbyathi&plateorificeinstaIIedaccordingto.\.S.M.E.stand-ards.~surgetankwasprovidedbetweentheengineandtheorficetodampoutpukations.LTpstreamanclc{ifferentialpressuresat.theorificeweremeasuredwithamercuryandawatermanometer,respectively.ThefueI-ffowmeasure-mentswereobtainedwithacalibratedrotameter.Theweightflowoftheairpumpedbyejectoractionwasmeasured,bymeansofaIargeintake-dicepipe(reference5);analcoholmicromanometerwasusedtoindicatetuewnaIIpressuredropsacrosstheoficeplate.Thedownstreamendoftheorificepipewasconnectedtoacylindricalsurgetankwithavolumeofapproximately90cubicfeettowhichwasattachedanderisionchamberwithprovisionformountingthe-mriousejectors.Thestaticpressureinthesurgetankandinthee.xtensionchamberwascontrolkdbyabutterflyvalveinstakdbet-iveentheorificepipeandthesurgetankandwasmeasuredwithaTatermanometer.

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