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When Developer's API Simplify User Mode Rootkits Developing

When Developer's API Simplify User Mode Rootkits Developing

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Published by Yury Chemerkin

This is a series of articles about shell extensions that enhance high-level features of any operation system. However, such possibilities not only enrich platform but simplify developing trojans, exploits that leads to the new security holes. Mostly this kind of extensions are known as usermode rootkits.

This is a series of articles about shell extensions that enhance high-level features of any operation system. However, such possibilities not only enrich platform but simplify developing trojans, exploits that leads to the new security holes. Mostly this kind of extensions are known as usermode rootkits.

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Yury Chemerkin on Jun 21, 2012
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved


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ybercrime is becoming a growing threat tosociety. The thefts of information, websitecrashing or manipulating online payment trafficare also increasing. Many organizations offer variousservices in the battle against digital crime, such asnetwork or data monitors and extractions tools. It isinteresting mainly to authorities and financial institutions,but they are accessible to every organization.Smartphones have been equipped with operatingsystems that compare in complexity with those ondesktop computers. This trend makes them vulnerableto lot of the same threats as desktop OS. The pastseveral years of mobile malware are no longer only inthe theory. There has been malware, loss, theft, datacommunication interception, exploitation, etc. This hasbeen because of the decreasing cost of mobile deviceswhich allowed them to enrich the software interfacesthat allows users to interact better with the cyber and thephysical worlds. For example, mobile devices are oftenpre-installed with a number of applications, includingclients for location-based services and general-purposeweb browsers used forchatting and social networking.The increasing number of mobile-related exploitstends to impact security breaches which have put theindustry at a critical point. That’s the greatest risk to allmobile OS moving to involve the rapid development, anddistribution throughout so-called app markets While mostof application markets provide an ideal transportationmechanism for the delivery of malicious software tothe heart ofindustry’s networks. According to Juniper Networks the following mobile malware take place:Mobile device and OS market share and mobilemalware infection rates are linkedMobile malware uses the same techniques as PCmalware to infect mobile devices.The greatest mobile malware risk comes from rapidproliferation of applications from app stores.RIM BlackBerry, Google Android, and Apple iOSoperating systems suffer predominantly fromspyware applicationsIt’s totally right. If you want to distribute malware takethe most popular application or game, most popular device what you are going to infect and place malwareapplication into „warez”-storage. For example, takeany game for Android/iOS, that is not free (like angrybirds) and place a supposedly cracked version on thenon-official android market. The application does noteven need to be the game. To prove this idea let’s goback to November 2010 when security researchersJon Oberheide and Zach Lanier unveiled an Androidexploit at an Intel security conference in Oregon.They showed that the Android security model includea security flaw that allows an application to invisiblydownload additional exe-applications, known as APKfiles, without requiring the user’s permissions. Their proof-of-concept malware did not contain any actualmalicious code; it simply portrayed itself as bonuslevels for 
 Angry Birds
that, once installed, would openup more levels for the player. In reality, nothing relatedto
 Angry Birds
was ever included in the application.However, Oberheide and Lanier proved that userscould be tricked into downloading this application,and that the application could download and installadditional applications without prompting the user to approve the additional installs, or to verify andagreement required for the background applications to
 This is a series of articles about shell extensions that enhance high-levelfeatures of any operation system. However, such possibilities not onlyenrich platform but simplify developing trojans, exploits that leads tothe new security holes. Mostly this kind of extensions are known as user-mode rootkits.
When Developers
API Simplify User-mode Rootkits Developing
When Developers API Simplify User-mode Rootkits Developing
User mode rootkits involve system hooking in the user or application space. Whenever an application makes asystem call, the execution of that system call follows apredetermined path and after that rootkit can interceptit. One of the most common user mode techniques isthe one in memory modification of system libraries.That’s why applications run in their own memoryspace and the rootkit needs to patch the memoryspace of every running application to provide self-control. Moreover, the rootkits have to monitor for new applications to patch those programs’ memoryspace too (need to explain the security rings if they arereferenced).User-mode rootkits run in Ring 3, along with other applications as user, rather than low-level systemprocesses. They have a number of possible installationvectors to intercept and modify the standard behaviour of 
application programming interfaces
(APIs). Someinject a dynamically-linked library like a. DLL file onWindows into processes, and are thereby able toexecute inside any target process to spoof it. Injectionmechanisms include:Use of vendor-supplied application extensions. For example, Windows Explorer as well as any mobileplatform like BlackBerry has public interfaces thatallow third parties to extend its functionality.Interception of messages.Exploitation of security vulnerabilities.Function hooking or patching of commonly used APIs, for example, to mask a running process or filethat resides on a file system.Windows-based rootkits are modifying paths andsystem structures these methods are used to masknetwork activity, registry keys, and processes Rootkitsmodify all the things which could alert a user to thefact that a malicious program is active in the system.Implementation in user mode rootkits is relatively easy.Most often, a method based on hooking API functionsis used to modify the path to executables.Many of rootkits techniques are well documented anduse
applications. Example: a desktop firewallprogram may use similar hooking things to watch andalert the user to any outgoing network connectionswhile a rootkit will use it to hide their backdoor activities. The legitimizing effect of commercial rootkitsoftware is leading away from user-mode and towardkernel-mode techniques at first glance. However, user-mode rootkits still have the ability to bypass securityapplications Non-official market places are now widelyavailable on the Internet therefore malware writersdon’t even ponder over how to spread it. It’s very easyto integrate several technologies into one malwareattack.be installed. Unfortunately, BlackBerry suffers from thesame problem.Mobile environments makevery attractive targets toattackers. Important personal and financial informationcan easily be compromised because phone usage is apart of day-to-day user activities. For example, mobiledevices are being used for chatting, email, storingpersonal data even financial data, pictures, videos,GPS tracks and audio notes. A rootkit is a stealth type of malicious software – designed to keep itself, other files, or networkconnections hidden from detection. A rootkit typicallyintercepts common API calls to modify or filter information from the operating system to keep itself hidden. For example, it can intercept requests to fileexplorer and cause it to keep certain files hidden fromdisplay, even reporting false file counts and sizesto the user. There are legitimate uses for rootkits bylaw enforcement, parents or employers wishing toretain remote command and control and/or the abilityto monitor activity on their employee’s or children’scomputer systems. Another example, rootkits are commonly used toconceal keyloggers, which steal sensitive user data,such as passwords and credit card numbers, by silentlylogging keystrokes. Rootkits are design to maintainaccess to targeted computers. Rootkits can also disablethe firewall/antivirus tools by replacing files, changingsettings or modifying what the antivirus application cansee. None of these activities are directly visible to theuser because the rootkit conceals its presence.There are several kinds of rootkits. They are bootkits,firmware user-mode kernel and hypervisor. A further discussion needs to compare kernel mode with user-mode rootkits.Kernel mode rootkits involve system hooking or modification in kernel space which is the ideal placebecause it is at the lowest level, highest level of securityand thus, is the most reliable and robust method of system hooking. As a system call’s execution path leaves user modeand enters kernel mode, it must pass through a gate.This gate must be able to recognize the purpose of the incoming system call and initiate the execution of code inside the kernel space and then return resultsback to the incoming user mode system call. It’s somekind of a proxy between user mode and kernel mode.One of the rootkit techniques is to simply modify thedata structures in kernel memory. For example, kernelmemory must keep a list of all running processes anda rootkit can simply remove themselves and other malicious processes they wish to hide from this list.Rootkits do this by inserting or patching the process thatlist running processes and then filter what processesare reported as running.

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