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Conversia Analog Digitala

Conversia Analog Digitala

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Published by Moshneag Moshu

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Published by: Moshneag Moshu on Jun 21, 2012
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08/31/2013

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Conversiaanalog
digitala
UnADC(Analog-to-DigitalConverter)esteundispozitivelectronicfolositpentruconversiatensiuniisaucurentuluianalogincuvintedigitalecaresareprezinteintrarea.ADCsemai noteaza~i
AID
convertersausimpluAID.DeoareceADC(Figura1)areambelefunctiianalogsidigital,esteundispozitivdesemnalmixt.MultidintrenoiconsideramADCcafiindundispozitivmisterios.Totusi,elpoateficonsideratfoartesimpluundispozitivcareasiguralaiesireadigitalauncuvantcereprezintatensiuneasaucurentuldeintrarelaunmomentdat.
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Fig.I.SchemadeprincipiuADCDenotatestefaptulcaintrareapoatefi
0
tensiunesauuncurrent(Figura2).CelemaimulteADCaucaintrare
0
tensiune,dardefinitiacorectaaunuiADCtrebuiesaincluda~iposibilitateaunuidispozitivdecurrent.
I~:-<",---A_DC--'.~
tensiunesaucurent
.2
n
x
G
X
A
in
lesire
=
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Fig.2.FunctiadeintrareaunuiADCUnADCcornparaintrareaanalogicacu
0
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0
reprezintaintrareaanalogica,DeciputemconsideraADCcafiindundivizor.Functiadetransferintrare/iesireestedatadeformulaindicatamaijos,undenestenumaruldebitilaiesire.GestefactoruldeamplificarealADC,
A
in
esteintrareaanalcgica(tensiunesaucurent),iar
V
ref
sau
I
ref
estetensiuneasaucurentuldereferinta.Dacaativazutrelatiainainte, probabilnuativazutfactorulG.Aceastadincauzacafactoruldeamplificareesteingeneralegalcuunitatea.NationalSemiconductors~ialtiproducatoriauintrodusconceptuldeADCcufactordeamplificarediferitde1,deaceeaesteimportantsaintelegemdeceavemacestfactor.
 
1.CetipdedispozivesteunADC?a.Analogb.Digitalc.Semnalmixtd.NiciunuldintreraspunsuriR:c.Semnalmixt2.IntrareaanalogicaaunuiADCestedeobicei,darnuintotdeauna?a.
0
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0
tensiune3.UnADCareintotdeaunaa.
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tensiunedeintraredereferintab.0iesireanalogicac.Ambeleraspunsurisuntcorected.NicunulnuestecorectR:d.Niunulnuestecorect4.UnADCa.Poateficonsideratundivizorb.Intotdeaunaare
0
iesiredigitalac.Ambelesuntcorected.NiciunraspunsnuestecorectR:c.AmbelesuntcorecteInrrcbari:
Functionarea
ADC
FolosindunADCde3bitica~iexemplu,vomvedearelatiadintreiesireadigitala,tensiunea (curentul)dereferintasitensiunea(curentul)deintrare.AvemunADCde3biti.Deoareceare3bitiexista2
3
=8coduriposibilelaiesire.Diferentadintreacestecoduriestedatade
V
ref
/2
3.
Presupunandcalaiesirenuavemerori,lafiecarecrestereatensiuniideintrarecuunvolt,coduldeiesirevacrestecuunbit.Acesatainseamnaca,pentruacestexemplu,eelmaiputinsemnificativbit(LSB)reprezintaunvolt,ceeaceestecelmaimicincrementpentruunADCde3biticureferintade8V.
 
+Va+VREF
+
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~n
~~
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~
Intrareanalogies
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LSB
Curent/Tensiune
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,----------------------------.-------------p-------,..-----------,
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LSB
i
:Referinta
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!
I-----------------~--------~------------~-------~-----------~
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OV<Vm<IV
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i
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-I------------~
i
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I-------------------------------~------------~-------L-----------~
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II!
I-------------------------------~------------l-------~-----------l
IIIII
i
4V<Vin<5V
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.-------------------------------l-------------~-------l_-----------l
I
5V<Vin<6V
I
I
I
0
I
I
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L
L
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------1
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6V<Vin<7V
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i
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Fig.3.SchemadeprincipiuaunuiADCpe3biti DenotatcadacareducemreferintalaO,8V,LSBvareprezentaO,IV,permitandmasurarea tensiunilor
ill
intervalul(0;0,8V)cu
0
acuratetemaimare.Aceastaestecaleadeaobtine
0
preciziemaimarelaunconvertor,laraamaicurnparaunconvertormaiscump,cupreciziemai mare.Trebuieluateprecautii
ill
ceeaceprivestezgomotul,reducereapreamultareferinteiduce lacrestereazgomotului. RezolutiaunuiconvertorADestenumaruldebitilaiesire(3Incazulexempluluiprezentat). RezolutiapoatefideasemeneadefinitacafiinddimensiuneaLSBsauaunuiincrement.Ceadea douadefinitieneindicacatdebinepoaterezolvaconvertorultensiuneasaucurentuldelaintrare. Intrebari: 1.UnADCasigurafunctiadea.Convertireaunuicuvantdigitalintensiuneanalogica b.Interfatareadintrelumeaanalogicasicircuiteleanalogicec.Ambelesuntcorected.NicunulnuestecorectR:d.Niciunulnuestecorect 2.CItecodurideiesireareunADCde12biti?
a.
256b.1023
c.
4095d.NiciunulnuestecorectR:d.Niciunulnuestecorect3.RezolutiaunuiADCestea.Numaruldebitilaiesire

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