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The Origin of Species and Societies by Means of Three-Level Selection

The Origin of Species and Societies by Means of Three-Level Selection

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Published by dao einsnewt
Natural selection is three-level selection in the chronological order of individual, relational (kin), and group selection. The principal bases for cooperation in individual, relational, and group selections are unconditional reciprocity with no pre-condition for individuals, beneficial relatedness derived from caring relation as the turning point deviated from reciprocity, and existential division of labor derived from handicapped individuals as the turning point deviated from relatedness, respectively. In group selection, all individuals are handicapped, and the existence of all individuals is dependent on existential division of labor that overcomes individual handicaps. Group fitness becomes much more important than individual fitness, including the fitness by reciprocity and relatedness. Only few insects (bees, wasps, termites and ants) and humans are in group selection, but they dominate the earth. Individual, relational, and group selections correspond to individualistic, collectivistic, and harmonious social interactions and societies, respectively. Three-level selection is divided into three parts: (1) the three-branch way, (2) the development of the three-branch way, and (3) the Postmodern Period.
(1) Three-level selection is based on the three-branch way consisting of the three basic human social lives (interactions): yin, yang, and harmony for feminine collectivistic relation, masculine individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively, derived from neuroscience and psychology. The origin of the human social lives is explained by human evolution. The emergence of the harmonious social life and society occurred during human evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution. (2) In the Prehistoric Period, the harmonious social life was evolved to adapt to the small social group in the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. In the Early Period starting from the Neolithic Revolution, the inevitable large civilized social group of the agricultural-nomad society destroyed the prehistoric harmonious small social group. As a result, the collectivistic society and the individualistic society were formed separately. In the collectivistic society, the state collectivistic religion (Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, and Confucianism) dominated. In the individualistic society, the state individualism (Greek mythology and science) dominated. Later, the harmonious religions (Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism) emerged. In the Modern Period, the modern mass printing and increased literacy led to communication and understanding among the three branches of human society for the modern three-branch society. (3) In the Postmodern Period, the postmodern economy is divided into individualistic (capitalistic), collectivistic (socialistic), and adaptive (unified) economies. The postmodern unified politics is divided into democracy (individualistic politics) for the partisan unified popular semi-professional system and meritocracy (collectivistic politics) for the nonpartisan unified semi-popular professional system. The downfall of democracy is civil war through zero-sum partisan competition, and the down fall of meritocracy is political collapse through weak private sector. The balanced unified education system should follow human development from primarily collectivistic education for childhood to primarily individualistic education for adulthood. In the postmodern religious system, the postmodern harmonious religion complementary to the collectivistic and individualistic societies is the most suitable postmodern religion. Permanent world peace can be achieved by the balanced unified economic, political, educational, and religious systems.
Natural selection is three-level selection in the chronological order of individual, relational (kin), and group selection. The principal bases for cooperation in individual, relational, and group selections are unconditional reciprocity with no pre-condition for individuals, beneficial relatedness derived from caring relation as the turning point deviated from reciprocity, and existential division of labor derived from handicapped individuals as the turning point deviated from relatedness, respectively. In group selection, all individuals are handicapped, and the existence of all individuals is dependent on existential division of labor that overcomes individual handicaps. Group fitness becomes much more important than individual fitness, including the fitness by reciprocity and relatedness. Only few insects (bees, wasps, termites and ants) and humans are in group selection, but they dominate the earth. Individual, relational, and group selections correspond to individualistic, collectivistic, and harmonious social interactions and societies, respectively. Three-level selection is divided into three parts: (1) the three-branch way, (2) the development of the three-branch way, and (3) the Postmodern Period.
(1) Three-level selection is based on the three-branch way consisting of the three basic human social lives (interactions): yin, yang, and harmony for feminine collectivistic relation, masculine individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively, derived from neuroscience and psychology. The origin of the human social lives is explained by human evolution. The emergence of the harmonious social life and society occurred during human evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution. (2) In the Prehistoric Period, the harmonious social life was evolved to adapt to the small social group in the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. In the Early Period starting from the Neolithic Revolution, the inevitable large civilized social group of the agricultural-nomad society destroyed the prehistoric harmonious small social group. As a result, the collectivistic society and the individualistic society were formed separately. In the collectivistic society, the state collectivistic religion (Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, and Confucianism) dominated. In the individualistic society, the state individualism (Greek mythology and science) dominated. Later, the harmonious religions (Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism) emerged. In the Modern Period, the modern mass printing and increased literacy led to communication and understanding among the three branches of human society for the modern three-branch society. (3) In the Postmodern Period, the postmodern economy is divided into individualistic (capitalistic), collectivistic (socialistic), and adaptive (unified) economies. The postmodern unified politics is divided into democracy (individualistic politics) for the partisan unified popular semi-professional system and meritocracy (collectivistic politics) for the nonpartisan unified semi-popular professional system. The downfall of democracy is civil war through zero-sum partisan competition, and the down fall of meritocracy is political collapse through weak private sector. The balanced unified education system should follow human development from primarily collectivistic education for childhood to primarily individualistic education for adulthood. In the postmodern religious system, the postmodern harmonious religion complementary to the collectivistic and individualistic societies is the most suitable postmodern religion. Permanent world peace can be achieved by the balanced unified economic, political, educational, and religious systems.

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Published by: dao einsnewt on Jun 21, 2012
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The Origin of Speciesand Societies
by Means of Three-LevelSelection
existential division of labor in group selection
 
beneficial relatedness in relational selection
 
unconditional reciprocity in individual selection 
caring relation as the turning point 
harmonious society
 
collective societyindividualistic society
 
The Evolution of Three-Level Selection
handicapped individuals as the turning points
 
 2
道生一,一生二,二生三,三生万物。万物负阴而抱阳,冲气以为和。
The Way gives birth to one, one gives birth to two, two give birth to three, and three give birth toall things. All things carry yin on back and hug yang in front. The forces collideto become harmony. (Chapter 42 Dao De Jing)
The Origin of Species and Societies by Means of Three-Level Selection
ContentsAbstract 5Diagrams and Tables 6Three-Level Selection in Evolution 6The Evolution of Three-Level Selection 6Part 1, Part 2, and Part 3 7The Three-Branch Way 8The Five Factors in Social Life 9The Social Life System for Primates 9The Properties of Social Lives 9Ape Evolution and Social Structures 10Hominid Evolution: The Evolution of the Conscience Instinct 10The Seven-Step Conversion to the Harmonious Social Life 11Postmodern Economy 12Postmodern Political System 12The History of Human Society 13Introduction 141. The Evolution of Three-Level Selection 171.1. Individual Selection with Individualistic Society 171.2. Relational selection with Collectivistic Society 191.3. Group Selection with Harmonious Society 191.4. The Evolution of Three-Branch Human Society 22
Part 1. The Three-Branch Way
252. The Development of Social Life 252.1. The Five Factors 262.1.1. The Gender Factors 262.1.1.1. Social Role: Bond and Systemization 272.1.1.2. Social Relationship: Relation and Achievement 282.1.1.3. Social Unit: Collectiveness and Individual 292.1.2. The Non-Gender Factors 312.1.2.1. Intragroup Contact: Passive and Dynamic 312.1.2.2. Social Flexibility: Unyielding and Flexible 322.2. The Social Lives 332.2.1. Yin and Yang Social Lives in Social Group 332.2.2. Group Social Relationship: Expressive and Domination 352.3. The Harmonious Social Life 373. Ape Evolution and Hominid Evolution 43
 
 3
3.1. Ape Evolution 463.1.1. The Original Ape: the solitary ape 463.1.2 The First Split: the peacemaking ape 473.1.3. The Second Split: the loyal ape 473.1.4. The Third Split: the harmonious ape 483.1.5 The Fourth Split: the aggressive ape 503.2. Hominid Evolution 524. The Properties, Interactions, and Reinforcements of the Social Lives 564.1. The Properties of the Social Lives 564.2. The Interactions of the Social Lives 584.3. The Enforcements of the Social Lives 59
Part 2. The Development of the Three-Branch Way
61
 
5. The Prehistoric Period 625.1. The Prehistoric Harmonious Society 625.2. The Religious Prehistoric Harmonious Society 635.3. The Exit from the Harmonious Society 656. The Early Period 69
 
6.1. The Early Collectivistic Society 696.2. The Early Individualistic Society 726.3. The Revival of the Harmonious Society 736.3.1. The Reasons for the Revival 736.3.2. The Conversion to the Harmonious Social Life 757. The Modern Period 89
 
7.1. The Modern Individualistic Society 897.1.1. The Renaissance 897.1.2. The Industrial Revolution 907.2. The Modern Collectivistic Society 91
 
7.3. The Christian Church 927.3.1. The Early Church as the Harmonious Society 927.3.2 The Church as the State Religion 947.3.3 The Reformation: the breakdown of the intermediary 947.3.4.
The Puritan Movement:the breakdown of the collectivistic society
957.4. The Three-Branch Unified society of America 967.4.1. The Decline of the State Religion 967.4.2. The Separation of Religion and State 977.5. The Harmonious Moral Religions 98
Part 3. The Postmodern Period
1018. The Postmodern Economic System 1038.1. The Economic Equation 1038.2. Industrial Economy 1048.2.1. Individualistic Economy 1058.2.2. Collectivistic Economy 1078.2.3. Adaptive Economy 1088.3. Postmodern Economy 1149. The Postmodern Political System 120

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