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53057671 Continuous and Discrete Time Signals and Systems Mandal Asif Solutions Chap04

# 53057671 Continuous and Discrete Time Signals and Systems Mandal Asif Solutions Chap04

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10/03/2013

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Chapter 4:
Signal Representation using Fourier Series

Problem 4.1
(a) Using Definition 4.4, the CT function
x
1
(
) can be represented as
x
1
(
) =
c
1
φ
1
(
) +
c
2
φ
2
(
) +
c
3
φ
3
(
)with the coefficients
c
n
, for
n
= 1,2, and 3, given by0)()()()(
2102102111211
=+=+=φ=
,
( )
,0)1()1()()1)(()1)(()()(
22222 12/212/02102/2212/2121212
=+= ++φ+=φ=
AT  AT  AT  AT
and
==+=φ=
)()1()1)(()()(
2102102131213
.In other words,
x
1
(
) =
A
φ
3
(
), which can also be proved by inspection.(b) By inspection,
x
2
(
) =
A
φ
2
(
), which can also be proven by evaluating the coefficients
c
1

= 0,
c
2
=
A
, and
c
3

= 0.(c) Using Definition 4.4, the CT function
x
3
(
) can be represented as
x
3
(
) =
c
1
φ
1
(
) +
c
2
φ
2
(
) +
c
3
φ
3
(
)with the coefficients
c
n
, for
n
= 1,2, and 3, given by
2222 12/212/2113211
)()1)(()1)(()()(
A AT  AT
=+=+=φ=
,
2222 12/212/2123212
)()1)(()1)(()()(
A AT  AT
==+=φ=
,and 0)()1)(()1)(()()(
210212/2133213
==+=φ=
.In other words,
x
3
(
) = 0.5
A
(
φ
1
(
)

φ
2
(
)), which can also be proved by inspection.
▌

Problem 4.2
Computing the integral
()
=φφ
dt  Keedt
4221
1)()( Since the function inside the integral is even with respect to
, therefore,

124 Chapter 4
( )
3060204221
12212)()(
dt e K dt edt  Keedt
===φφ
For the functions to be orthogonal, .301
3
==
K

▌

Problem 4.3
The following derivation shows that the individual functions {
P
n
(
x
),
n
= 0, 1, 2, 3} have nonzero finiteenergy. We use the notation
P
m
,
n
to represent the integral
P
m
,
n
=
11
()()
m n
P x P x dx
.Computing the integrals

[ ]
110,011
1.12
P dx x
= = =
,
1123121,13311
P x dx x
= = =
,

( )
11122425399111122,24445255111
(31)9612(21)
P x dx x x dx x x x
= = + = + = + =
,and
( )
11642753252511123,344727711
2530963(63)
P x x x dx x x x
= + = + = + =
,which shows that the functions
P
n
(
x
) have nonzero finite energy.To show that the functions are orthogonal with respect to each other, we determine the integrals

10,11
0
odd
P x dx
=
= =
,
1123110,22211
(31)0
P x dx x x
= = =
,
1310,321
(53)0
odd
P x x dx
=
= =
,
1311,221
(3)0
odd
P x x dx
=
= =
,
114253111,32211
(53)0
P x x dx x x
= = =
,and
15312,341
151430
odd
P x x x dx
=
= + =

.
▌

Solutions 125
Problem 4.4
The following derivation shows that the individual functions {
n
(
x
),
n
= 0, 1, 2, 3} have nonzero finiteenergy. We use the notation
m
,
n
to represent the integral
=
112,
)()( 11
dx x x  x
nmnm
.Computing the integrals

[ ]
π===
1111120,0
)(sin11
xdx x
,2)(sin1 1
1112122111221,1
π=+= =
x x xdx  x x
,
π=π+ππ=+ =+=
2)5.0(434 141144
0,01,1 1124112242,2
dx x xdx x x x
,and similarly, the higher order
m
,
n
‘s can be proven to be nonzero for
m
=
n
.To show that the functions are orthogonal with respect to each other, we determine the integrals

011
1121121,0
===
xdx x x
,02112
0,01,1 11222,0
===
dx x x
,0)1(13 14134
11323121,0112311233,0
=+= ==
x xdx  x xdx x x x
,and similarly, the higher order
m
,
n
‘s can be proven to be zero for
m

n
.
▌
Problem 4.5
Case I (
m
=
p
,
n
=
q
):
[ ]
[ ]
==
1020,0102,10,,
)2()()()(
dt n H dt  H dt  H  H
mnmq pnm
Substituting
)2(
n x
m
=
,we get
[ ] [ ]
==
nmnnmq pnm
mm
dx x H dx x H dt  H  H
2020,0220,010,,
)(22)()()(. Since (0

n

2
m
– 1), therefore, (2
m
–
n
)

≥
1 and
[ ]
mmmm q pnm
dxdxdx x H dt  H  H
=+==
2)1(2)1(2)(2)()(
15.025.0021020,010,,
.