2 SPE 108075
The Dan and Halfdan Complex
This complex is located in the Danish part of the North SeaCentral Graben and is comprised by Dan (2.9 billions barrelOOIP, 12 production platforms, and 108 wells) and Halfdan(1.615 billions barrel OOIP, 4 production platforms, and 62wells).The Dan
field was discovered in 1971 and started productionin 1972, making it the oldest producing oil field in the NorthSea. It consists of a high porosity (18% to 40%), low permeability (1 md in average) chalk. It was initiallydeveloped with fractured vertical/deviated wells. To improve productivity the operator adopted horizontal cemented wells in1987 associated with acid fracturing stimulation. Thestimulation treatment was soon changed to hydraulic(propped) fracturing looking for medium and long term productivity. Amongst the many lessons learned in the Danfield development one can mention:1.
Water injection is fundamental to increase the recoveryfactor in the low permeability carbonates;2.
To achieve high water rates in nonfractured chalks it isnecessary to inject above the fracture propagation pressure,and true stimulation is not necessary
Water injection management can be achieved by usingsliding sleeve (SS) configuration (opened or closed),downhole fixed chokes, and surface injection pressurecontrol
Horizontal cemented wells associated with multiplehydraulic fractures, were successfully introduced in 1987;5.
A stimulation and lower completion system that allowed perforating, stimulating, and isolating the treated interval,in one trip, was introduced in 1989
The controlled acid jetting liner (CAJ), introduced in1998
, allowed the extension of the horizontal section beyond coiled tubing reach (used to operate the SSs of the previous system) while permitting efficient acid treatmentalong the liner;7.
Whenever possible the wellbore orientation must be in the preferred fracture direction in order to avoid or minimizetortuosity in the fracture initiation/propagation process.8.
The perforation interval must be short to avoid theinitiation of several fractures, and with high density andlarge entrance holes to ease the placement of high proppantconcentration;9.
The use of injection tests prior to the main treatment canestimate the magnitude of tortuosity;10.
Sand injection tests were successfully used to remove or reduce tortuosity; increasing the treatment rate and/or thefracturing fluid viscosity also helped overcomingtortuosity;11.
It is possible to overcome poor cement isolation filling thechannels with sand before pumping the fracturing fluids.The Halfdan field was discovered in December 1998 by a9022 m long horizontal well (horizontal section of 6324 m)drilled from a production platform in the Dan field. It went onstream in the same year through a pilot production system.The reservoir is laterally extensive and consist of ahomogeneous and isotropic chalk of Maastrichtian and Danianage, with high porosity (25% to 35%), low permeability (0.5md to 2.0 md), low thickness (5 m to 15 m) and withoutstructural closure
. The Halfdan development plan wasconceived at the very beginning by making use of the lessonslearned in Dan. The water injection secondary recovery wasthe main determinant in the Halfdan development. Among theseveral lessons learned in Halfdan one can emphasize theinjection fracturing in a densely spaced line drive water floodtechnology, including the fracture aligned sweep technology(FAST) concept
The South Arne field is located in the northern part of theDanish sector of the North Sea in water depth of 60 m. Theinstallations comprise a combined wellhead, processing, andaccommodation platform. The reservoir is an elongatedstructure, 93 km² in area, 2,800 m deep (deepest chalk inDenmark), and is comprised of high porosity/low permeabilitychalks from the Maastrichtian and Danian ages. The wellshorizontal sections (around 1800 m) navigate through theupper portion of the Tor formation (0.2 md to 4 md). Thefractures along the lateral were supposed to cover the Tor formation and at least 75% of the Ekofisk formation (0.0 mdto 0.7 md) above to ensure adequate drainage. South Arne isan example of initial total failure that was overcame by proper analysis and actions. This case study
revealed manyimportant conclusions such as:1.
Using proper fracture initiation, the wellbore orientationdid not make difference in South Arne;2.
Pressure depletion can significantly affect fracturegeometry;3.
The combination of G-function and log-log pressuredecline analyses provided more reliable and consistentinterpretation of fracture closure pressure;4.
The use of G-function superposition analysis of mini-fracdata can assist in the recognition of pressure dependentleakoff due to fissure opening;5.
The fracture initiation should use cross-linked gel, proppant slugs to reduce complexity and sand slugs to plugopen natural fractures/fissures. zones with high naturalfracture density should be avoided;6.
100-mesh sand slugs at concentrations of 3 ppg to 4 ppgmay control excessive fluid loss due to the activation or dilation of natural fractures;7.
Porosity (25% to 45% in South Arne) is an importantdeterminant in the fracturing design affecting very muchthe Young’s modulus (less than 500,000 psi to over 2,000,000 psi);8.
Most fracture treatment problems arose in zones with porosity less than 30%;9.
In a case of longitudinal fractures in a poorly cementedliner there were no evidences of additional problems.
The Valhall field, located in the Norwegian sector of the NorthSea, was discovered in 1975 and started production in October 1982. The Valhall complex consists of five separate steel platforms for quarters, drilling, wellheads, production, andwater injection. In addition the field has two unmanned flank platforms, one in the south and one in the north, both around 6