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Exposicion Australia

Exposicion Australia

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Published by Fred Marlon Aponte

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Published by: Fred Marlon Aponte on Jun 21, 2012
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ECONOMY
Theeconomyof Australiais one of the mostdeveloped, modernmarket economiesin the world, with aGDPof approximately US$1.6 trillion.
Australia's total wealth is 6.4 trillion dollars. In2011, it was the 13th largest national economy by nominal GDP
and the 17th largest measured byPPP adjustedGDP, representing about 1.7% of theWorld economy. Australia was also ranked the 19th largestimporter and 19th largestexporter.Australia has 8 times more adults earning over  $100 000 than the worldwide average.
In 2011 the average middle aged adult had a net worth of over $350 000, making Australians per capita some of the wealthiest people in the world.
The Australian economy is dominated by itsservice sector , representing 68% of GDP. The miningsector represents 10% of GDP; the "mining-related economy" represents 9% of GDP - the totalmining sector represents 19% of GDP.
Economic growth is largely dependent on the miningsector. The economy expanded by 0.4% in the fourth quarter of 2011, and expanded by 1.3% in thefirst quarter of 2012.
TheAustralian Securities Exchangeis the largest stock exchange in Australia. Australia is home tosome of the largest companies in the world including,BHP Billiton,National Australia Bank , Commonwealth Bank ,Rio Tinto Group, ANZ,Westpac, Telstra,Macquarie Bank ,Woolworths  andAMP- which also are the 10 largest companies in Australia.
TheAustralian dollar is thecurrencyof the Commonwealth of Australia and itsterritories, includingChristmas Island,Cocos  (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island.It is also the official currency of the independentPacific  Island nationsof Kiribati, NauruandTuvalu. Australia has amarket economywith high GDP per capita and a low rate of poverty. TheAustralian dollar  is the currency for the nation, including Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling)Islands, and Norfolk Island, as well as the independentPacific Island statesof Kiribati,  Nauru, and Tuvalu.After the 2006 merger of the Australian Stock Exchange and the Sydney FuturesExchange, the Australian Securities Exchange is now the ninth largest in the world.
Ranked third in theIndex of Economic Freedom(2010),
Australia is theworld's thirteenth largest economy and has the fifth highest per capita GDP(nominal) at $66,984. The country was ranked second in the United Nations 2011Human Development Indexand first inLegatum's 2008 Prosperity Index.
All of Australia's major cities fare well in global comparative livabilitysurveys;
Melbourne reached first place on
The Economist' 
s 2011World's Most Livable Cities list, followed by Sydney, Perth, and Adelaide in sixth, eighth, and ninth place respectively.
Total government debt in Australia is about $190 billion
- 20% of GDPin 2010.
Australiahas among the highest house prices and some of the highest household debt levels in the world.
An emphasis on exporting commodities rather than manufactured goods has underpinned asignificant increase in Australia'sterms of tradesince the start of the 21st century, due to risingcommodity prices.Australia has a balance of paymentsthat is more than 7 per cent of GDPnegative, and has had persistently largecurrent accountdeficits for more than 50 years.
Australia has grown at an average annual rate of 3.6 per cent for over 15 years, in comparison tothe OECD annual average of 2.5 per cent.
Australia was the only advanced economy not toexperience a recession due to the global financial downturn in 2008-2009.
Six of Australia's
 
major trading partners had been in recession which in turn affected Australia, and economicgrowth was hampered significantly over recent years.
TheHawke Government floatedthe Australian dollar in 1983 and partially deregulated the financial system.
The Howard Government followed with a partial deregulation of the labour   marketand the furthe privatisationof state-owned businesses, most notably in the telecommunicationsindustry.
 The indirect tax system was substantially changed in July 2000with the introduction of a 10 per centGoods and Services Tax(GST).
InAustralia's tax system, personal and companyincome taxare the main sources of government revenue.
In May 2012, there were 11,537,900 people employed (either full- or part-time), with anunemployment rate of 5.1 per cent.
Youth unemployment (15–24) stood at 11.2 per cent.
Over the past decade, inflation has typically been 2–3 per cent and the base interest rate 5–6 per cent. The service sector of the economy, including tourism, education, and financial services,accounts for about 70 per cent of GDP.
Rich in natural resources, Australia is a major exporter of agricultural products, particularly wheat and wool, minerals such as iron-ore and gold, andenergy in the forms of liquified natural gas and coal. Although agricultureand natural resources account for only 3 per cent and 5 per cent of GDP respectively, they contribute substantially toexport performance. Australia's largest export markets are Japan,China, the US, South Korea, and New Zealand.
 Australia is the world's fourth largest exporter of wine, in an industrycontributing $5.5 billion per annum to the nation's economy.
[
CURRENCY
The
Australian dollar
(sign:
$
;code:
AUD
) is thecurrencyof theCommonwealth of Australia, includingChristmas Island,Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island, as well as the independentPacific Island statesof Kiribati,NauruandTuvalu. Within Australia it is almost always abbreviated with thedollar sign(
$
), with
A$
sometimes used to distinguish it from other dollar -denominated currencies.
 It is subdivided into 100cents. The Australian dollar is, as of 2012, the third-most-traded currency in the world.
 In 2010 it wasthe fifth-most-traded currency in the worldforeign exchange marketsbehind theUS dollar , the euro, theyenand the pound sterling.
 The Australian dollar is popular with currency traders, because of the comparatively high interest rates in Australia, the relative freedom of the foreignexchange market from government intervention, the general stability of Australia's economyand political system, and the prevailing view that the Australian dollar offers diversification benefits ina portfolio containing the major world currencies, especially because of its greater exposure toAsian economies and the commodities cycle.
The currency is commonly referred to by foreign-exchange traders as the "Aussie."Australia was the first country in the world to have a complete system of bank notes made from plastic (polymer). These notes provide much greater security against counterfeiting. They also last
 
four times as long as conventional paper (fibrous) notes. The polymer notes are cleaner than paper notes and easily recyclable.Australia’s currency comprises coins of 5, 10, 20 and 50 cent and one and two dollar denominations; and notes of 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 dollar denominations.
DEMOGRAFY
The population of Australia is estimated to be 22,933,010 as of 14 June 2012.
Australia is the50th most populous country in the world. Its population is concentrated mainly in urban areas andis expected to exceed 28 million by 2030.
Australia's population has grown from an estimated population of about 350,000 at the time of British settlement in 1788 due tonumerous waves of immigrationduring the period since. Alsodue to immigration, the European component of the population is declining as a percentage, as it isin many other Western countries.Australia has scarcely more than two persons per square kilometre of total land area. With 89% of its population living in urban areas, Australia is one of the world'smost urbanisedcountries.
Thelife expectancy of Australia in 1999–2001 was 79.7 years, among the highest in the world.For almost two centuries the majority of settlers, and later immigrants, came from the British Isles.As a result the people of Australia are mainly a mixture of British and Irish ethnic origin. In the2006 Australian census, the most commonly nominated ancestry was Australian (37.13 per cent),
followed byEnglish(32 per cent),Irish(9 per cent),Scottish(8 per cent),Italian(4 per cent), German(4 per cent),Chinese(3 per cent), andGreek (2 per cent).
Australia's population has quadrupled since the end of World War I,
much of the increase fromimmigration. Following World War II and through to 2000, almost 5.9 million of the total population settled in the country as new immigrants, meaning that nearly two out of every sevenAustralians were born in another country.
Most immigrants are skilled,
but the immigrationquota includes categories for family members andrefugees.
By 2050, Australia's population iscurrently projected to reach around 42 million.
In 2005, 24% of Australians were born elsewhere;
the five largest immigrant groups were thosefrom the United Kingdom,New Zealand, Italy, Vietnam, and China.
Following the abolitionof theWhite Australia policyin 1973, numerous government initiatives have been established toencourage and promote racial harmony based on a policy of multiculturalism.
In 2005–06, morethan 131,000 people emigrated to Australia, mainly fromAsia and Oceania.
The migrationtarget for 2012–13 is 190,000,
 compared to 67,900 in 1998–99.
The Indigenous population—mainland Aboriginesand Torres Strait Islanders —was counted at 410,003 (2.2 per cent of the total population) in 2001, a significant increase from 115,953 in the1976 census.
A large number of Indigenous people are not identified in the Census due to

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