AmERIcAN sEcuRIty pRojEct
Beginning in late 2004, ground-based midcourse missile deense (GMD) interceptors were deployed at twosites on the U.S. West Coast.Currently, a total o 30 Ground-Based Interceptors (GBIs) are deployed at the two sites - Fort Greely, Alaska,and Vandenberg Air Force Base in Caliornia. Te Missile Deense Agency’s current procurement plans call ora total o 57 GBIs.
In 2007, as the “next step...[in deending] America and our NAO allies rom attacks emanating rom theMiddle East,” President Bush announced plans or missile deense elements at a third site - Europe.
Te Tird Site would consist o 10 ground-based midcourse interceptors in Poland, a xed X-band radar inthe Czech Republic, and a mobile radar deployed in an unidentied country closer to Iran.
Obama and EPAA
“o put it simply, our new missile deense architecture in Europe will provide stronger, smarter, and switer deenses o American orces and America’s Allies. It is more comprehensive than the previous program; it deploys capabilities that are proven and cost-efective; and it sustains and builds upon our commitment to protect the U.S. homeland against long-range ballistic missile threats; and it ensures and enhances the protection o all our NAO Allies.”
, September 17, 2009
In September 2009, the Obama administration unveiled a new plan or European missile deense, based onconsultations with allies and a comprehensive review o U.S. ballistic missile deense.
Te European Phased Adaptive Approach (EPAA) abandoned the ground-based midcourse missile interceptors o Bush’s Tird Site plan in avor o theStandard Missile 3 (SM-3) interceptors.Under the current plan, the SM-3 interceptor will be upgraded in our phasesand deployed initially on Aegis ships, then later on land (the “Aegis- Ashore”sites) in Romania and Poland.Te Aegis elements are to be integrated with a system o sensors and radars.Tis system includes:
a orward based X-Band radar site in urkey,
mobile Aegis SPY -1D radars on Aegis ships, xed SPY-1D radars in Ro-mania and Poland,
an Airborne Inrared (ABIR) sensor platorm, and
the satellite- based Precision racking Space System (PSS).Te Administration attributed the new plan to two developments: rst, an intelligence assessment that theIranian missile threat to the Middle East and Europe had increased, and second, to improved capabilities o the SM-3 interceptor that make the EPAA more eective and efcient than the previous system.
While EPAA is the centerpiece o European missile deense plans, it is not the only component o the overall