Patterns of change
Shorter Oxford Dictionary
ors svral dniions of cang, ranging from ‘subsiuion or succssion of on ing in plac of anor’ o ‘alraion in sa or qualiy of anying’. Cangs can b larg or small, voluionary or rvolu-ionary, soug ar or rsisd
Tis capr xamins naur of cang,rviws oris rlaing o parns of cang, considrs som of facors afacilia or limi cang and xplors som of implicaions of dirn yps of cang for cang managmn pracic. Anion is also givn o cs of cang on individuals.T capr nds wi wo xrciss. T rs invis you o analys naur of cang involvd in four cas sudis. T scond invis you o rc on naur of cangs confroning organizaion you work for, or anor organiz-aion a you know wll, and classify s cangs using concpual fram- works prsnd in is capr.Unil rcnly almos all rcivd modls of cang wr incrmnal and
cumu-laiv. Tis orical consnsus ad implicaions for cang managmn pracic.T aim of plannd cang ors ndd o b coninuous improvmn (wa Japans rfr o as ‘kaizn’) and mos anion was focusd on canging subsys-ms or pars of organizaion in urn, rar an amping o cang wolorganizaion a onc. Ovr pas 30 yars, owvr, many radiional assumpionsabou incrmnal naur of cang av bn rvisd.
he rate of change is not constant
Saring in la 1970s, usman and is collagus a Columbia Univrsiy sudid undrds of companis in svral indusris ovr im (s usman andRomanlli, 1985; usman al.,
1986). Ty found vidnc o suppor wamany alrady knw. T ra of cang, as an indusry volvs, is no consan. follows a sigmoidal (s-sapd) curv, wi a slow bginning (lag pas) associad wi xprimnaion and slow mark pnraion, a middl priod of rapid grow(log pas) as produc gains accpanc and as dominan dsigns mrg, andnally a apring o as mor advancd or complly dirn producs aracconsumrs’ anion (Figur 1.1). T parn n sars all ovr again.Similar variaions in ra of cang wr idnid muc arlir by Ryan andGross (1943), wn y sudid ow 259 farmrs in owa rspondd o inro-ducion of a nw suprior ybrid sd corn. T nw sd was availabl in 1928 bui was 1932 bfor rs farmrs bgan planing. n 1934, 16 farmrs adopd nw sd, followd by sligly igr numbrs in following wo yars. Bu i wasnin yars ar sds wr rs availabl bfor r was widsprad accp-anc. T brakroug cam in 1937. T rs usrs wr innovaors wo