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P. 1
Función Alcohol

Función Alcohol

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Published by karinxxxx

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Published by: karinxxxx on Jun 22, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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06/22/2012

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FUNCIONALCOHOL
6.1ESTRUCTURA.
Losalcoholestienencomo
gTUpO
funcional1.'11adicaloxhidrilo
0
hidroxilo.
Laformula
generaldeestacornpuestoes:R-OH,endondeRescual-
qurer
grupoalquilo,inclusosustituido.Eslcgrupo,puedeserdecadenaabierla
0
cfclica,puedeconlenerundohleenlace,unatornodehalcgeno,etc.CuandoelgrupoOHsehallaunidoaunCdelanilloarornaticosetramdeunfenol,noesun
alcohol,
CHPH
alcoholbencnco
6.2TIPOSDEAl.COHOLES.
cklohexanol
OH
Ienol
los
alcoholes
se
clasifican
deacuerdo1.'11ipodeCdonde
5e
encuentra
unidoelgrupofuncional-OH.
R'
I
R-C-OH
I
R"
AlcoholTerdarlo
H'
I
R-C-OH
I
H
AlcoholSecundarto
H
I
R~C-OH
I
H
Alcohol
Prtmarlo
 
6.3NOMENCLATURA
1.
EImetodacarbinol,en(';1cuallosalcoholessonderivadosdelalcoholme-tllieo
(carbinol)
y
donde
uno
0
mas
delosHdel
CH]
se
reernplazan
porotrosgrup05.,2.
POT
elsistema
IUPAC,
en,elcualelsufijoOLreemplaza1310delalcanoparalndicar
-OH.
3,
Porsusnornbrescomunes,como
elalcohol
mstllco
(CI-LPHI,
PROBLEMA.
Deunnombrecormlnparacadaunodelossiguientesalcoholes
y
ciaslfiquelos
como
1',2'Y3'.
b)CH.1CH2iHCH3
OH
c)
CHoCHCH,OH
~I"
CH
3
CIi,
I
d)CH
3
-C-OH
I
CH
3
f)
CH-CH-OH
3
I
CH.1
CH~
I
g)
CH-C-CHOH
3
I
2
CH
3
SOUJCION.
a)Alcohol
n-propilco,
1
o
c)
Alcoholisobutilico,I"
e)
Alcoholbencilico,1
0
91Alcohol
neo-pennlico,1
0
b)Alcoholsec-butlko.Z"
d)AlcoholIerbuttlico.S"
f)
Alcoholisopropllico.Z"
 
PROBLEMA,
Nornbralos
siguienles
elcoholesmedianteelsistemaIUPAC
y
carbinol.
c]
H
2
C
=
CHiHCH3
OH
CARBrNOL
a)Elil-n-propil[enilcarbinol
b)Diclommelilcarbinol
clMelilvini:lcarbinol
d]D~elil-n-propUcarbinol
6.4METODOSDEPREPARACION.
1.
HP
RX
+
ott
-------i""'
ROH
+
x-
2.Hlidrataci6ndeAlquenos
blCl-CHCHPH
I
CI
IUPAC
3lenil-3-hex3nol2,2-didoro
etanol
3-bulen-2-ol
3---e1i1-3-hexanol
CH
3-
CH
=
CH.
1-.
[SO·d"1CH~-CH-CH
l
Z.~]
!
OH
3.Hidrcboracton-Ox'daclcn
CH
3
-CH=CH
z

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