Chaylen AndolinoPartner: Bethany RudolphMake-up LabDate: 5/25/2012Evaporation and Intermolecular Attractions LabPurpose:The purpose of this lab was to observe temperature changes caused by the evaporation of ethanol, 1- propanol, 1- butanol, n- pentane, methanol, and n- hexane, and then relate thetemperature changes to the strength of intermolecular forces of attraction.Background:Evaporation is the process where a liquid solution changes into the gaseous state.Solutions can evaporate at any given temperature and evaporation occurs at the surface of thesolution instead of through the solution like boiling. Evaporation relates with kinetic energybecause the average velocity of the particles in a solution are raised because of temperatureinc
rease then the particle’s individual velocity will rise and more collisions will occur. As more
collisions occur it will reach a point where the particles of the solutions surface will begin to becollided and hit with more force and the particles will be removed from the liquid and the surfacewhich causes those particles to become gaseous.Physical properties like melting point, boiling point, viscosity, solubility, and evaporationare related to the strength of attractive forces between molecules. These attractive forces arecalled intermolecular forces. Hydrogen bonds are the strongest bond between molecules out of the three. When a hydrogen bond is present it becomes more difficult to break that bond betweenthe molecules since the strength of the bond between the molecules is strong it then becomesmore difficult for a solution in a liquid state to become gaseous which would entail bonds to bebroken in turn would result in a slower evaporation rate. The weakest intermolecular force wouldbe the London dispersion bond since the bond is the weakest and it is less difficult to break apartthe bonds in substances that have dispersion bonds present. Since the bonds are easier to break apart, solutions that consist of dispersion forces have a faster evaporation rate; the easier it is tobreak the bonds the less energy is required to do so therefore the rate of evaporation isquickened. Dipole-dipole forces are stronger than dispersion but weaker than hydrogen bondingwhich means that its rate of evaporation is between hydrogen bonding and dispersion. In thisexperiment two types of intermolecular forces, hydrogen bonding and dispersion forces, can helpto understand the evaporation rates of alcohols and alkanes.