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Evaporation and Intermolecular Attractions Lab

Evaporation and Intermolecular Attractions Lab

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Published by Chaylen Jade

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Published by: Chaylen Jade on Jun 22, 2012
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Chaylen AndolinoPartner: Bethany RudolphMake-up LabDate: 5/25/2012Evaporation and Intermolecular Attractions LabPurpose:The purpose of this lab was to observe temperature changes caused by the evaporation of ethanol, 1- propanol, 1- butanol, n- pentane, methanol, and n- hexane, and then relate thetemperature changes to the strength of intermolecular forces of attraction.Background:Evaporation is the process where a liquid solution changes into the gaseous state.Solutions can evaporate at any given temperature and evaporation occurs at the surface of thesolution instead of through the solution like boiling. Evaporation relates with kinetic energybecause the average velocity of the particles in a solution are raised because of temperatureinc
rease then the particle’s individual velocity will rise and more collisions will occur. As more
collisions occur it will reach a point where the particles of the solutions surface will begin to becollided and hit with more force and the particles will be removed from the liquid and the surfacewhich causes those particles to become gaseous.Physical properties like melting point, boiling point, viscosity, solubility, and evaporationare related to the strength of attractive forces between molecules. These attractive forces arecalled intermolecular forces. Hydrogen bonds are the strongest bond between molecules out of the three. When a hydrogen bond is present it becomes more difficult to break that bond betweenthe molecules since the strength of the bond between the molecules is strong it then becomesmore difficult for a solution in a liquid state to become gaseous which would entail bonds to bebroken in turn would result in a slower evaporation rate. The weakest intermolecular force wouldbe the London dispersion bond since the bond is the weakest and it is less difficult to break apartthe bonds in substances that have dispersion bonds present. Since the bonds are easier to break apart, solutions that consist of dispersion forces have a faster evaporation rate; the easier it is tobreak the bonds the less energy is required to do so therefore the rate of evaporation isquickened. Dipole-dipole forces are stronger than dispersion but weaker than hydrogen bondingwhich means that its rate of evaporation is between hydrogen bonding and dispersion. In thisexperiment two types of intermolecular forces, hydrogen bonding and dispersion forces, can helpto understand the evaporation rates of alcohols and alkanes.
 
All of the substances are flammable, so the person conducting the experiment should be careful.Once the probe has been in the vial for the time recommended and is taken out, the vial shouldimmediately be closed. Not only will this prevent dangerous spills, but it will also prevent othersfrom getting sick from the strong smell of the alcohols. Glasses should also be worn as thesubstances could be harmful to eyes.Prediction:My partner and I predicted that as we went down the table, the changes in temperaturewould increase because that was the pattern we saw so far with the first two substances. We alsothought that butanol would have around 12.5 because it has hydrogen bonding like 1- propanol,but has a higher molecular weight. N- pentane was predicted to have higher than ethanol andpropanol because its molecular weight is higher than each. We thought that methanol would behigher because of the hydrogen bonds and since the molecular weight is lower compared toethanol. N- hexane was predicted to have highest because although there is no hydrogenbonding, the molecular weight is higher than n-pentane.Variables:Independent Variable:- ethanol, 1- propanol, 1- butanol, n- pentane, methanol, and n- hexaneDependent Variable:-rate of evaporation of the substanceControls:-length of paper-how long the probe stays in the vialProcedure Alterations:We made a few changes to the procedure, such as doing the last four trials all at the sametime. This may have made it more difficult to make sure all samples were taken out of the liquidsat the same time, and also made it more difficult to keep track of which sample was which.Another change was that the vials of the substances were placed in a small beaker before theprobes were put it in to make sure that they did not fall over. We also taped the probes above thesink instead of over the edge of the table to ensure that they did not get hit by people walking bythe table.
 
RESULTS:
Substancet

t

 
ΔT t
-t

 ethanol
21.4 12.2
. . .
 
1- propanol
21.2 10.3
. . .
 
1- butanol
22 18.5
. . .
 
n- pentane
22.3 9
. . .
 
methanol
22 2.3
. . .
 
n- hexane
21.8 7.8
 . .
 
or the ernier temperature proe the uncertainty is  . .
Qualitative Data:-The paper became completely saturated in the liquid that it in immersed in.- Some of the samples evaporated more quickly, I could see the paper dry.-The substances smelled very strong.

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