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9i Architecture1

9i Architecture1

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Published by Mahidhar Koppula

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Published by: Mahidhar Koppula on Jun 22, 2012
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9i Architecture
When ever user want to interact with the oracle server the interaction withthe server will take the fallowing steps.
User Process
A database user who needs to request information from the database mustfirst make a connection with the oracle server the connection is requestedusing a database interface tool such as SQLPLUS and beginning the user  process. the user process not interact directly with the oracle server.rather itgenerates calls through the user program interface which creates a sessionand starts a server process. 
Connection
It is a communication path way between a user process and oracle server There r three types of connections* 1 tier A user directly interacts with server with in the system* 2 tier A user interacts with the server through a network * 3 tier A user interacts with the server over the network to an application.
Server Process
Once a user has established a connection a server process is started to handlethe user process requests. a server process can be either a dedicated or shared server process.Dedicated—the server process handles the request of a single user process.Once a user process disconnects, the server process is terminated.Shared—the server process handles the request of several user processes.It runs on the same machine as the oracle server .each server process servesservices only one user process. This server process is create when a user request a connection and is generally terminated when a user disconnects.The server process uses the oracle program inter face (OPI) which is used tocommunicate with the oracle server at the requests of the user processThis server process returns status information and results to the user processEach server process uses as area of memory called the program global area(PGA).
PGA—program global area
When a user gives a transaction, in PGA a block will allocate for particular user before going to oracle server. This block is a temporary area until theout put reaches to the user When using the dedicated server configuration the PGA contains
 
sort area: used for any sort that may be necessary before rows are processed or returned to the user 
session information : such as user privileges for the session
cursor state : which indicate the stage in the processing of variouscursors that r currently used by the session
stack space : containing the session variables
Thus PGA is allocated when a process is created and de allocatedwhen the process is terminated
.
Sessions
A session is a specific connection of a user to an oracle server. The sessionstarts when the user connects to the oracle server. And it ends when the user logs out.
SGA—System global area
It is a dynamicIt is used to store database information that is shared by database processes.
Dynamic SGA
Dynamic SGA implements an infrastructure that allows the SGAconfiguration to change with out shut down the instance. This modified sgawill effect on db buffer cache and shared pool onlyTo view sga –desc v$sgastatTo change sga size—alter system set sga_max_size=64m;
Shared pool
It holds most recently executed sql statementsMost recently used data definitionTo change the size –alter system set shared_pool_size=64m;
Library cache
Stores information about the most recently used SQL and PLSQL statementsIf the size of the shared pool is too small, statements r continuously reloadedinto library cache. It is manage my LRU algorithm
Shared SQL –it stores and shares the execution plan and parse tree for sql statements. Is second time the statement is run it takes from parsetree
Shared PLSQL —stores and shares the most recently used plsqlstatements it stores functions ,packages and triggers
Data dictionary cache
Collection of most recently used definitions in the database
 
Includes information about database files, tables, indexes, columns,users, privileges and other database objectsDuring parse phase the server process looks at data dictionary for information to resolve object names and validate access.
Data buffer cache
Stores copies of data blocks that have been retrieved from the data filesWhen a query is parsed the oracle server process looks in data buffer cache for any block it need if it is not found in db buffer the server  process reads the block from data files and place a copy in db buffer cache.To resize –alter system set dba_cache_size=96m;
Redo log buffer cache
It records all changes made to the database data blocksPrimary purpose is recovery
Large pool
Share the burden of shared poolBackup and restore operation a or RMAN
Java pool
Services parsing requirements for java commandsIt is an optional setting but is required if installing and using java.
Background processes
Maintains and enforces relation ships between physical database andmemory structures.
DBWRn
Writes the dirty buffers from database buffer cache to the data files.Here the server process records changes to undo data blocks in the db buffer cache.Dbwrn writes when check point occursThere is no free buffer When tablespace offline, read only, drop or truncate, begin backup.
LGWR 
nIt records all changes made to the database data blocks.It occurs –when a transaction commitsWhen redolog buffer is one third fullWhen more then 1MB of changes recorded in the redo log buffer 

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