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A Handbook of Some South Indian Grasses, By Rai Bahadur K. Ranga Achariyar and C. Tadulinga Mudaliyar

A Handbook of Some South Indian Grasses, By Rai Bahadur K. Ranga Achariyar and C. Tadulinga Mudaliyar

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Published by: Ashraf-Ul Alam Shikder on Jun 22, 2012
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AHandbookofSomeSouthIndianGrassesAHandbookofSomeSouthIndianGrasses,byRaiBahadurK.RangaAchariyarandC.TadulingaMudaliyarThiseBookisfortheuseofanyoneanywhereatnocostandwithalmostnorestrictionswhatsoever.Youmaycopyit,giveitawayorre-useitunderthetermsoftheProjectGutenbergLicenseincludedwiththiseBookoronlineatwww.gutenberg.orgTitle:AHandbookofSomeSouthIndianGrassesAuthor:RaiBahadurK.RangaAchariyarC.TadulingaMudaliyarReleaseDate:December28,2007[EBook#24063]Language:EnglishCharactersetencoding:ISO-8859-1***STARTOFTHISPROJECTGUTENBERGEBOOKSOUTHINDIANGRASSES***ProducedbySuzanneLybarger,JohnHagerson,JulietSutherland,LeonardJohnsonandtheOnlineDistributedProofreadingTeamathttp://www.pgdp.net(ThisfilewasproducedfromimagesgenerouslymadeavailablebyTheInternetArchive/MillionBookProject)AHANDBOOKOFSOMESOUTHINDIANGRASSESBYRAIBAHADURK.RANGAACHARIYAR,M.A.,L.T.,IndianAgriculturalService,AgriculturalCollege,Coimbatore,andFellowoftheMadrasUniversityASSISTEDBYC.TADULINGAMUDALIYAR,F.L.S.,AgriculturalCollege,Coimbatore.MADRAS:PRINTEDBYTHESUPERINTENDENT,GOVERNMENTPRESS.1921Price,4rupees8annasPREFACEThisbookisintendedtoserveasaguidetothestudyofgrassesoftheplainsofSouthIndia.ForthepastfewyearsIhavebeenreceivinggrassesforidentification,almosteveryweek,fromtheofficersoftheAgriculturalandForestDepartmentsandothersinterestedingrasses.Therequirementsofthesemenandtheabsenceofasuitablebookinducedmetowritethisbook.Ihaveincludedinthisbookaboutonehundredgrassesofwidedistributionin
 
theplainsofSouthIndia.ManyofthemoccuralsoinotherpartsofIndia.Therarergrassesoftheplainsandthosegrowingonthehillsareomitted,withaviewtodealwiththemseparately.Thevalueofgrassescanberealizedfromthefactthatmancansupplyallhisneedsfromthemalone,andtheirimportanceinagricultureisverygreat,asthewelfareofthecattleisdependentupongrasses.Farmers,asarule,takenointerestinthem,althoughprofitableagricultureisimpossiblewithoutgrasses.Veryfewofthemcangivethenamesofatleasthalfadozengrassesgrowingontheirland.Theyneglectgrasses,becausetheyarecommonandarefoundeverywhere.Theycannotdiscriminatebetweenthem.Toafarmer"grassisgrass"andthatisallhecarestotroublehimselfabout.AboutgrassesRobinsonwrites"GrassisKing.Itrulesandgovernstheworld.Itistheveryfoundationofallcommerce:withoutittheearthwouldbeabarrenwaste,andcotton,gold,andcommercealldead."Intheearlydayswhenthepopulationwasverymuchlimitedandwhenlandnotbroughtundercultivationwasextensiveplentyofgreengrasseswasuponitandpastureswerenumerous.Sothefarmerpaidnoattentiontothegrasses,anditdidnotmattermuch.Butnow,populationhasincreased,unoccupiedlandhasdecreasedverymuchandthecattlehaveincreasedinnumber.Consequentlyhehastopaymoreattentiontograsses.Onaccountofthescarcityoffodder,peopleinterestedinagricultureandcattlerearinghaveveryoftenimportedforeigngrassesandfodderplantsintothiscountry,butsofarnoonehassucceededinestablishinganyoneofthemonanylargescale.Usuallyagreatamountoflabourandmuchmoneyisspentintheseattempts.Ifthesameamountofattentionisbestowedonindigenousgrasses,betterresultscanbeobtainedwithlesslabourandmoney.Therearemanyindigenousgrassesthatwillyieldplentyofstuff,iftheyaregivenachancetogrow.Thepresentdeteriorationofgrassesismainlyduetoovergrazingandtramplingbymenandcattle.Toprovethebeneficialeffectswhichresultfrompreventingovergrazingandtrampling,Mr.G.R.Hilson,DeputyDirectorofAgriculture(nowCottonExpert),selectedsomeportionofthewastelandintheneighbourhoodoftheFarmatHagariandcloseditformenandcattle.Asaresultofthismeasure,intwoyears,anumberofgrassesandotherplantswerefoundgrowingontheenclosedareaverywell,andallofthemseededwell.Ofcoursetheunenclosedareaswerebareasusual.InthepreparationofthisbookIreceivedconsiderablehelpfromM.R.Ry.C.TadulingaMudaliyarAvargal,F.L.S.,AssistantLecturingandSystematicBotanist,inthedescriptionofspeciesandIamindebtedtoM.R.Ry.P.S.JivannaRao,M.A.,TeachingAssistant,forassistanceinproofreading.IhavetoexpressmydeepobligationtoMr.G.A.D.Stuart,I.C.S.,DirectorofAgriculture,forencouragementtoundertakethisworkandtotheMadrasGovernmentfororderingitspublication.FortheexcellenceinthegetupofthebookIamindebtedtoMr.F.L.Gilbert,Superintendent,GovernmentPress.K.RANGACHARI.AGRICULTURALCOLLEGE,LAWLEYROAD,COIMBATORE,2ndJune1921.CONTENTS
 
PAGEPREFACEiiiCHAPTERI--Introduction1II--Thevegetativeorgans5III--Theinflorescenceandflower13IV--Histologyofthevegetativeorgans19V--Classification43VI--Panicaceæ45VII--OryzeæandZoysieæ123VIII--Andropogoneæ138IX--AgrostideæandChlorideæ220X--FestucaceæandHordeæ283GLOSSARY311INDEX315AHANDBOOKOFSOMECOMMONSOUTHINDIANGRASSES.CHAPTERI.INTRODUCTION.Grassesoccupywidetractsoflandandtheyareevenlydistributedinallpartsoftheworld.Theyoccurineverysoil,inallkindsofsituationsandunderallclimaticconditions.Incertainplacesgrassesformaleadingfeatureoftheflora.Asgrassesdonotlikeshade,theyarenotusuallyabundantwithintheforestseitherasregardsthenumberofindividuals,orofspecies.Butinopenplacestheydoverywellandsometimeswholetractsbecomegrass-lands.Thenaverygreatportionoftheactualvegetationwouldconsistofgrasses.Onaccountoftheiralmostuniversaldistributionandtheirgreateconomicvaluegrassesareofgreatimportancetoman.Andyetveryfewpeopleappreciatetheworthofgrasses.Althoughseveralfamiliesofplantssupplythewantsofman,thegrassfamilyexceedsalltheothersintheamountandthevalueofitsproducts.Thegrassesgrowinginpasturelandandthecerealsgrownallovertheworldareofmorevaluetomanandhisdomesticanimalsthanalltheotherplantstakentogether.Tothepopularmindgrassesareonlyherbaceousplantswithnarrowleavessuchasthehariali,gingergrassandthekolakattaigrass.ButinthegrassfamilyorGramineæthecereals,sugarcaneandbamboosarealsoincluded.Grassesareratherinterestinginthattheyareusuallysuccessfulinoccupyinglargetractsoflandtotheexclusionofotherplants.Ifwetakeintoconsiderationthenumberofindividualsofanyspeciesofgrass,theywillbefoundtoout-numberthoseofanyspeciesofanyotherfamily.Evenasregardsthenumberofspeciesthisfamilyranksfifth,thefirstfourplacesbeingoccupiedrespectivelybyCompositæ,Leguminosæ,OrchideæandRubiaceæ.Asgrassesformanexceedinglynaturalfamilyitisverydifficultforbeginnerstoreadilydistinguishthemfromoneanother.Theleavesandbranchesofgrassesareverymuchalikeandtheflowersaresosmallthattheyareliabletobepassedbyunnoticed.Therecognitionofevenourcommongrassesisquiteataskforabotanist.Tounderstandthegeneralstructureofgrassesandtobecomefamiliarwiththemitisnecessarytostudycloselysomecommongrasses.WeshallbeginourstudybyselectingasatypeoneofthespeciesofthegenusPanicum.Panicumjavanicumisanannualherbwithstemsradiatinginalldirectionsfromacentre.Theplantisfixedtothesoilbyatuftoffibrousrootsallspringingfromthebasesofthestems.Inadditiontothiscrownoffibrousroots,theremayberootsatthenodesofsomeoftheprostratebranches.Thestemsandbra

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