Proceedings of Insert Conference Abbreviation:Insert Conference NameInsert Conference Date and Location
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Combined Cycle Heat Recovery Optimization
A. Ragland, Vogt-NEMW. Stenzel- EPRIsolutions
The US electrical power industry has changed from a regulated business where utilities were virtually guaranteed a rateof retum to an unregulated business where the market sets the price. As with any unregulated business, the price of a serviceor supply is determined by supply and demand, and the seller must be competitive in order to meet its desired revenue target.Profitability will largely be determined by the business' overall operating efficiency. As the electricity supply businessbecomes more competitive, it becomes more important to optimize fuel selection and plant design to achieve competitiveelectricity prices while providing a satisfactory financial return for owners and other participants. Plant designs need to beadjusted to the specific project parameters to achieve optimum results. Fuel costs, yearly plant outputs, interest rates andother factors need to be considered when establishing plant designs. Four plant designs are compared using natural gas in thispaper. This paper will present a view of the cost benefits achieved through heat recovery steam generator (HRSG)optimization.The many possible business and technology scenarios, and site specific nature of each project makes it difficult, timeconsuming and costly to effectively optimize fuel selection, generating unit selection, efficiency, capital cost, and return oninvestment. Using computer tools is very important to properly handle these complex analyses. The use of the SOAPPCombustion Turbine Software as an analysis/decision support tool for optimizing combined cycle plants is described herein.
Achieving financial improvements requires proper analysis of many requirements and parameters. Changing one inputdesign parameter often results in modifications to other parameters. For example, changing the HRSG design changesefficiency, fuel cost, capital cost, debt financing, and emission rates. Often it is important to assess the impact of a range ofinputs in the analysis.Combustion turbine performance has the primary impact on combined cycle plant efficiency. The next most importantpiece of equipment that impacts efficiency is the heat recovery steam generator. The HRSG parameters to optimize includesteam pressures, temperatures, flows, pinch points, approach temperatures, and HRSG exit gas temperatures.
HRSG BASIC DESIGN CONCEPTS
Figure 1 is a typical cycle for a single pressure HRSG. Multiple pressure HRSGs with duct firing and other capabilitiescan become much more complicated. This diagram shows the main gas, steam, and condensate flows, and the typical HRSGsurfaces and steam drums. Flue gas from the combustion turbine enters the HRSG and is reduced in temperature by thesuperheater, reheater, dram evaporative surfaces, and economizer before it enters the stack. Condensate from the combinedcycle condenser enters the deaerator, and flows through the economizer to the drum. Steam from the drum flows to thesuperheater and then to the high pressure turbine. Steam from the high pressure steam turbine flows through the reheater andthen to the intermediate pressure turbine.Pinch points and approach temperatures are important HRSG design parameters. Reducing these temperatures willincrease cycle efficiency. However, optimization involves fairly complicated heat transfer calculations and steam cycle heatbalances to avoid operational problems. Figure 2 provides a simple diagram showing pinch and approach temperatures:
Proceedings of 2000 International Joint Power Generation ConferenceMiami Beach, Florida, July 23-26, 2000
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