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Peoples of the Earth: Ethnonationalism, Democracy and the Indigenous Challenge in "Latin" America

Peoples of the Earth: Ethnonationalism, Democracy and the Indigenous Challenge in "Latin" America

Ratings: (0)|Views: 398|Likes:
"There are few things as controversial and sensitive as the indigenous issue in Latin America, and even fewer as well studies as Martin Edwin Andersen does in Peoples of the Earth. For anyone who wishes to understand the issue, with sympathy or skepticism, this is a must-read."
-- Jorge G. Castañeda
Former Foreign Minister of Mexico, and author of Utopia Unarmed
"There are few things as controversial and sensitive as the indigenous issue in Latin America, and even fewer as well studies as Martin Edwin Andersen does in Peoples of the Earth. For anyone who wishes to understand the issue, with sympathy or skepticism, this is a must-read."
-- Jorge G. Castañeda
Former Foreign Minister of Mexico, and author of Utopia Unarmed

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Published by: Martin Edwin Andersen on Jun 22, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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03/13/2014

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P
EOPLES
 
OF
 
THE
 E
ARTH
E
THNONATIONALISM
, D
EMOCRACY
 
AND
T
HE
 I
NDIGENOUS
 C
HALLENGE
 
IN
 “L
ATIN
” A
MERICA
M
ARTIN
 E
DWIN
 A
NDERSEN
F
OREWORD
 
BY
OBERT
 A. P
ASTOR 
 
C
HAPTER 
 O
 NE
Chapter One
Introdut!on
“The past is never dead. It’s not even past.”
 —William Faulkner 
 Requiem for a Nun“It is impossible to awaken someone who is pretending to sleep.”
 —Navajo proverbIn 1992 !"e #ive$"un%re%!" anniver&ar' o# C"ri&!op"er Columbu&( )%i&*over'+ o# !"e Ameri*a& ,a& a *a!al'&! #or unpre*e%en!e% in%i-enou& people&( mobili.a!ion !"rou-"ou! !"e Hemi&p"ere/ T"a! 'ear an impor!an! In%ian lea%er #rom E*ua%or vi&i!e% Wa&"in-!on 0/C/ #or !"e #ir&! !ime/ A! !"e en% o# "i& &!a' ,"en !"e *ol% ,in%& o# la!e au!umn "a% alrea%' #or*e% a &mall arm' o# "omele&& people on!o &ub,a' -ra!e& !o keep ,arm !"e &o#!$&poken man ,a& a&ke% "o, "e #el! abou! "i& vi&i!/ )ou kno, #or a *i!' !"a! "a& &o man' poor people on !"e &!ree!& 'ou *er!ainl' "ave a lo! o# bi- "ou&e& #or 'our *ar&+ "e re&pon%e% allu%in- !o !"e man' parkin- -ara-e& %o,n!o,n/ Hi& vie, &o %i##eren! #rom !"a! o# man' vi&i!or& !o !"e /3/ *api!al re#le*!e% !"e value& o# !"e *ul!ure in ,"i*" "e ,a& rai&e%/ One "un%re% an% ei-"!'$!,o 'ear& earlier 3"a,nee C"ie# Te*um&e" a&ke% William Harri&on -overnor o# !"e In%iana Terri!or' a 4ue&!ion revealin- o# !"e *ul!ural ab'&&  be!,een Na!ive Ameri*an& in ,"a! ,a& !"en ni!e% 3!a!e& !erri!or' an% !"e ,"i!e &e!!ler& ,"o ,ere !"en movin- on!o !"eir lan%& %i&po&&e&&in- !"e ori-inal in"abi!an!&5
Ho, *an ,e "ave *on#i%en*e in !"e ,"i!e people6 W"en 7e&u& C"ri&! *ame upon !"e ear!" 'ou kille% "im—!"e &on o# 'our o,n 8o%—'ou naile% "im up ou !"ou-"! "e ,a& %ea% bu! 'ou ,ere mi&!aken/ An% onl' a#!er 'ou !"ou-"! 'ou kille% "im %i% 'ou ,or&"ip "im an% &!ar! killin- !"o&e ,"o ,oul% no! ,or&"ip "im/ W"a! kin% o# a people i& !"i& #or u& !o !ru&!6
1
T"e !,o &!orie& are &epara!e% b' nearl' !,o *en!urie& bu! are uni!e% in !"eir !"eme& o# *ul!ural %i##eren*e an% !"e #rank 4ue&!ionin- o# !"e value& o# a %ominan! &o*ie!'/ T"e' o##er a vie,poin! #rom ,"i*" !o un%er&!an% one o# !"e mo&! ve:in- *"allen-e& o# !"e !,en!'$#ir&! *en!ur'5 W"a! *an be %one !o brin- !"e Fir&! Na!ion& o# !"e Ameri*a& in!o ne, %emo*ra!i* *ompa*!& !"a! re&pe*! !"eir ri-"!& broa%l' *on&i%ere% ,"ile re!ainin- !"e re-ion(& rela!ivel' "armoniou& na!ion$&!a!e boun%arie& ;a )<one o# Pea*e+ a& &ome *all
2
 
P
EOP=E3
 
OF
 
THE
 E
ARTH
i!>/ An% ,"a! *an be %one !o en&ure re&pe*! #or in%ivi%ual liber!ie& *ri!i*all' impor!an! !o *ivilian$le% rule o# la,6 T"i& la&! *on&i%era!ion i& i!&el# *ompli*a!e%/ 3in*e !"e !ime o# !"e 3pani&" Con4ue&! rela!ion& be!,een in%i-enou& people& an% !"e na!ion$&!a!e "a& run  pre%ominan!l' alon- a mili!ari.e% a:i&? !"e arme% #or*e& ;,"en no! !"e Ca!"oli* C"ur*"> "ave been !"e primar' repre&en!a!ive& o# !"e u&uall' p"'&i*all' an% *ul!urall' remo!e *api!al *i!' !"o&e ,"om Na!ive Ameri*an& &a, an% ,i!" ,"om !"e' in!era*!e%/ Wi!" &u*" a "i&!or'!"e emer-en*e o# people& ,"o &"are an*e&!ral *ul!urallan-ua-e or reli-iou& !ie& an% *ommon i%en!i!ie&—&ome !"ir!'$#ive !o #or!' million "i&!ori*all' %i&a%van!a-e% Na!ive Ameri*an&—a& in#luen!ial poli!i*al a*!or& in Cen!ral an% 3ou!" Ameri*a an% @e:i*o po&e& impor!an! *"allen-e& #or poli*'maker& !"rou-"ou! !"e Hemi&p"ere/ T"e i&&ue o# !"eir #ull an% ju&! in*orpora!ion a& *i!i.en& on !"eir o,n !erm&  be*ome& even more impor!an! a& %eman%& #or In%ian &el#$%e!ermina!ion an% !"e  po&&ibili!ie& o# e!"no$&e*!arian violen*e are *a&! a& a %ire*! !"rea! !o !"e &e*uri!' poli*ie& —an% !"u& !"e &overei-n!'—o# &everal na!ion$&!a!e& o# )=a!in+ Ameri*a/ A& !"e re-ion prepare& !o *elebra!e i!& bi*en!ennial markin- in%epen%en*e #rom 3pani&" *oloniali&m even a& i! en-a-e& in an unpre*e%en!e% "un! #or re&our*e&in%i-enou& &*"olar& a*!ivi&!& an% o!"er& "o!l' %i&pu!e !"e o,ner&"ip o# !"e laurel& #rom !"a! "i&!ori* !ime lon- !"e kno,n proper!' o# !"o&e !ra*in- !"eir o,n %e&*en! a! lea&! in  par! !o 3pain an% o!"er *oun!rie& o# Europe/ T"e #ormer &a' !"e re-ional libera!ion in 11B #rom ,"i*" Na!ive Ameri*an&( o,n #ore#a!"er& %i% no! !an-ibl' bene#i! ,a& none!"ele&& a *ommon,eal #or ,"i*" !"e' *an *laim in !"e name o# !"eir #orbearer& a lar-e mea&ure o# *re%i!/ T"e en%urin- pre&en*e o# !"e pa&! ,"ere !"e &ele*!ion o# narra!ive& i!&el# involve& a *ompe!i!ion #or publi* memor' !"u& be*ome& a ,eapon in  poli!i*al an% *ul!ural *la&"e& over bo!" !"e *on!our& o# na!ional i%en!i!' an% !"e %ire*!ion o# &!a!e in&!i!u!ion&//
2
 =oomin- in !"e ba*k-roun% an% rea*"in- even #ar!"er ba*k in!o "i&!or' in &everal *oun!rie& o# 3ou!" Ameri*a in Ni*ara-ua an% #rom 8ua!emala !o &ou!",e&!ern ni!e% 3!a!e& are voi*e& rai&e% *"allen-in- *on!emporar' poli!i*al boun%arie& o# na!ion$&!a!e&  b' *omparin- !"em an% !"eir u!ili!' an% !"eir e4ui!abili!',i!" !"o&e o# pre$*on4ue&! *ivili.a!ion&/ T"e&e an% o!"er emer-in- p"enomena &ome ba&e% on rea%in-& o# "i&!or' o!"er& -roun% in !"e "ere an% no, &u--e&! !"a! !"e even!ual *our&e o# *"allen-e& !o !"e  poli!i*al le-i!ima*' o# rulin- eli!e& an% !"e %i&!ribu!ion o# re&our*e& upon ,"i*" *on!emporar' in%i-enou& mobili.a!ion i& ba&e% remain& an open 4ue&!ion—,i!ne&& !"e  bloo%' *la&" a !ra-e%' #ore!ol% in 7une 2BB9 in a-ua PerD/ Hi&!or' %oe& no! *on*e%e op!imi&m5 !"e lar-el' un"eral%e% -eno*i%e a-ain&! In%ian people& in PerD an% 8ua!emala o**urre% a& la!e a& !"e ,anin- 'ear& o# !"e !,en!ie!" *en!ur' ,"ile !o%a' in%i-enou&  people&( #orbearan*e a*ro&& !"e re-ion i& ,earin- e:*ee%in-l' !"in/ Cen!urie&$ol% -rievan*e& *on!emporar' "umilia!ionan% !"e *on!inue% la*k o# real poli!i*al empo,ermen! an% e##e*!ive me*"ani&m& !o pea*e#ull' a%%re&& !"o&e inju&!i*e& *on!inue !o be pla'e% ou! pre*ariou&l' alon- one o# !"e "emi&p"ere(& %eepe&! #aul! line&/ In olivia PerD E*ua%or an% o!"er *oun!rie& ;in*lu%in- C"ile a *oun!r' #re4uen!l' "el% up

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