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Table Tennis

Table Tennis

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Published by Xtine Joy Casalme

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Published by: Xtine Joy Casalme on Jun 22, 2012
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TABLE TENNISI.Brief Description of the GameTable tennis or ping-pong
is a sport that can be played by two to four players. It is similar in principle tolawntennisand played on a flat table divided into two equal courts by a net fixed across its width at the middle. The object is to hitthe ball so that it goes over the net and bounce on the opponent’s half of the table in such a way that the opponent cannotreach it or return it correctly. The lightweight hollow ball is propelled back and forth across the net by small rackets held bythe players. The game is popular all over the world. In most countries it is very highly organized as a competitive sport,especially in Europe and Asia, particularly in China and Japan. The table tennis area looks much like the larger tennis courttoo.
II.Brief History of the GameEarly Origins of Table Tennis/Ping-Pong
12th Century AD
- The game of table tennis probably descended from the game of "Royal Tennis" (also known asReal Tennis or Court Tennis), which was played in the medieval era.
- Some sources claim that the sport was once known as indoor tennis, and was played in the early 1880's byBritish army officers stationed in India and South Africa. These officers are supposed to have used cigar box lidsaspaddles, rounded wine bottle corks asballs, and books for an improvisednet.
- The game had become fashionable among the upper classes in England.
- According to theITTFwebsite, the first use of the name "Table Tennis" appeared on a board and dice gamemade by J.H.Singer of New York.
- The earliest existing evidence of a table tennis game is a set made by David Foster, patented in England,which included table versions of Lawn Tennis, Cricket and Football.
- John Jacques of London introduce their "Gossima" game, which used drum-type paddles, a 50mm webwrapped cork ball, and a 30cm high net.
- Parker Brothers begin making an indoor tennis kit which included a portable net, a small ball covered innetting, and paddles.
- Englishman James Gibb is credited with bringing hollow celluloid balls back to England from the USA,although some other sources claim they were plastic balls. Previously most balls were solid rubber or cork, often coveredin material. Some sources also credit Gibb with inventing the name "ping pong", which was supposed to have beenderived from the sound of the ball bouncing off the drum battledores (paddles), each of which had a different sound.
- John Jacques registered "Ping Pong" as a trade name in England. The American rights to the name are soldto Parker Brothers.
- On the 12th December 1901, "The Table Tennis Association" is formed in England. Four days later, "ThePing Pong Association" is also formed in England.
- Table tennis is first brought to China via western settlements. (Guide note-Thanks guys - now look whatyou've done!)
- Englishman E.C.Goode is credited with putting pebbled rubber on his woodenblade, allowing him to putmore spin on the ball. This is the forerunner of theordinary pimpled rubber racket, which will dominate table tennis until1952.
- On the 1st May 1903, "The Table Tennis Association" and "The Ping Pong Association" amalgamate,forming "The United Table Tennis and Ping Pong Association". This association will later revert its name to "The TableTennis Association", before becoming defunct in 1904.
1920's - 1950's - Classic Hard Bat Era - Europe Dominates the Sport
- In the early 1920's the game began to revive in England and Europe.
- "The Table Tennis Association" is reconstituted, with the name "English Table Tennis Association" beingadopted in 1927.
- The International Table Tennis Federation is formed.
- Maria Mednyanszky of Hungary wins the Women's Singles event at the World Championships fivetimes in a row.
- Victor Barna of Hungary wins five of the six Men's Singles events at the World Championships (andwas runner up in 1931).
- The American Ping Pong Association, US Amateur Table Tennis Association, and National Table Tennis Association merge to form the US Table Tennis Association (which was renamed USA Table Tennis in 1994).
- Repainted tables (which made the playing surface very slow) and a high net (6¾ inches high) combine tomake attacking play very difficult at the World Championships in Prague, Czechoslovakia. This results in the longest rallyever in a World Championships taking place, lasting over two hours.
- The ITTF lowers the net from 6¾ inches to 6 inches, and bans the fingerspin serves which had been usedwith devasting effect by American players.
- No World Championships held due to World War II.
Angelica Rozeanu-Adelstein of Romania wins six Women's Singles titles in a row at the WorldChampionships. Since her last title win in 1955, every World Champion in Women's Singles has been an Asian player.
1950's - 1970's - Sponge Bat Era, Rise of Japan and China
- Hiroji Satoh of Japan becomes notorious for his use of a wooden racket covered in thick foamspongerubber , which produces much more speed and spin than conventional pimpled rubber rackets. He wins the 1952 WorldChampionships over Jozsef Koczian of Hungary, and begins a period of Asian male domination in the sport which will lastuntil Sweden rises to supremacy from 1989 into the early 1990's.
- The World Championships changes to a biennial event (once every two years), due to the logistics of hostingan event of such size, and difficulty in finding suitable venues.
- The first European Championships is conducted in Budapest, Hungary, and sees the USSR's debut ininternational table tennis.
- The ITTF standardizes the thickness of ordinary pimpled rubber and sponge rubber.
III.Facilities and Equipments
Table Tennis RacketsThe basic equipment required in the game of table tennis is the tennis racket. Known by various names as paddlesin US or bats in UK, the official term that is used is table tennis racket. The term "racket" and "paddle" are synonymous. Thetable tennis racket is made from laminated wood. There is the flat and rigid wooden blade which incorporates the handle.The blade is covered with rubber on one or both sides.
Types of Racquets/ Rackets or PaddlesRecreational Paddles
Recreational paddles are made of wood and rubber combination that are significantly lower in speed and spinproducing capability than the powerful "hi performance" custom paddle category of products. Recreational level rackets arebought with rubber sheets and wood (blades) of good to moderate performance.
Hi-Performance Custom Paddles
This category of rackets is made of highly specialized, hi-performance rubber and woods. These table tennispaddles or rackets produce much more speed and spin than recreational rackets. Hi-performance custom rackets arebought by selecting particular specialized wood (or wood/graphite) along with hi-performance rubber.The table tennis game is played with the table tennis racket, which has two parts : the blade and the handle. Thetable tennis racket as a whole is made of fine wood and the blade portion is covered on both or one side with rubber.
Blades are classified in the following way according to their speed:
Defensive Blades:
These are slow blades having maximum control and suitable for defensive players. For example, beginners and choppers.
All-round Blades:
This is for an all-around player who mixes defense and offense in equal amounts.
Offensive Blades:
These are the fastest blades and are not recommended for beginning players.
Materials Used
Table Tennis Blades are usually made of wood, though other materials in small quantities are used like carbon and acrylate.They are used as a thin layer in the middle layers of the blade. Fiberglass is becoming a popular choice for table tennisbecause it renders stability to the racket and is lighter in weight.
Selection Tips of Table Tennis Blades
There are certain things to consider choosing the right table tennis bat or blade so that you feel nice while carrying andplaying with it.
The light weight blades can be moved or swung more quickly than heavier blades. However, according tophysics, momentum = mass * velocity. As such, the heaviest blade swing comfortably and quickly and can give youthe best speed when hitting the ball.
This is another factor to consider. The blade's stiffness refers to the amount of bend or flexibility theblade has. A stiffer blade is faster than a flexible blade.
This refers to whether the blade's center of gravity is closer to the tip of the head or the handle. The center of gravity of a blade changes depending on the rubbers' weight. Heavy rubbers will tend to move the center of gravity out towards the tip of the racket head.
Faster blades are used by the more aggressive players, and slower blades by the more defensive.
Head Size:
The larger head size of the blade require more rubber to cover the surface, which makes the bat heavier and moves the center of gravity of the blade away from the handle.
Handle Type:
This depends on the comfortability and the player's grip.
The blade has a number of layers, which vary from 1 to a maximum of 7. It is said that the blade having 3 to5 layers is popular. The number of layers in the blade is no way connected to the speed of the blade.Table Tennis BallsThe table tennis balls are lightweight, hollow balls which the player’s strike back and forth using tabletennisracketson a hard, wooden table.
 As per rules, the table tennis game is played with a light 2.7 gram, 40 mm diameter ball.
The table tennis or TT ball is made of a high-bouncing air-filled celluloid or plastic.
TT balls are available in many colors such as white, yellow & orange color with matte finish but officially white and orangeare accepted colors.
Table Tennis Balls have a rating system that uses stars. Ranging from one to three, the quality of the balls increases withnumber of stars. The three star ball is the highest quality level. The three-stars should be used for most rally drills andpractice games. For multiple-ball drills, such as serves and smashes, good quality practice balls can be had.
Table tennis balls are provided in different quality levels determined by seam quality, roundness and consistency. All ballsmust undergo the rigorous tests prescribed by the ITTF such as bounce test, roundness test, rolling deviation test, hardnesstest, weight test, seam and surface inspection, and color grading selection.Table Tennis TablesTables for table tennis must comply with the regulation dimensions:Length: 9 feet (2.74m)Width: 5 feet (1.525m)Height: 2 feet 6 inches (76cm)Thenet'slength and height are respectively 6 feet (1.83m) and 6 inches (15.25 cm).Color of the TableThe surface of the table must be a dull, non-reflective color that contrasts with the white and orange colors of the balls.Black, navy blue, and green are popular colors.

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