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Halliburton 2001 - Basic Petroleum Geology

Halliburton 2001 - Basic Petroleum Geology

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Published by Ibukun Opeyemi
Petroleum Geology and rock physics
Petroleum Geology and rock physics

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Published by: Ibukun Opeyemi on Jun 22, 2012
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06/25/2014

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Halliburton
1Basic Petroleum Geology
© 2001, Halliburton 
Basic Petroleum Geology andLog Analysis
 
Basic Petroleum Geology and Log Analysis
 
Halliburton
2Basic Petroleum Geology
© 2001, Halliburton 
Table of Contents
Introduction.............................................................................................................................................5Objectives................................................................................................................................................6Earth
  
An Evolving Planet....................................................................................................................7Geology Basics........................................................................................................................................8Three Basic Rock Types........................................................................................................................10The Rock Cycle.....................................................................................................................................11Geologic Time.......................................................................................................................................12Age Dating.........................................................................................................................................12Basic Age Dating Principles...............................................................................................................13Geologic Time Scale..........................................................................................................................15Basic Classification and Types of Sedimentary Rocks............................................................................17The two main groups of sedimentary rocks are classified on the basis of their origin...........................17There are five types of sedimentary rocks that are important in the production of hydrocarbons:.........18Source Rock and Hydrocarbon Generation.............................................................................................19Migration of Hydrocarbons....................................................................................................................19Basic Hydrocarbon Chemistry...............................................................................................................20Five Major Types of Hydrocarbons of Interest to Petroleum Exploration................................................21Kerogen/Bitumens..............................................................................................................................21Crude Oil...........................................................................................................................................22Asphalt..............................................................................................................................................23Natural Gas........................................................................................................................................23Condensates.......................................................................................................................................24Temperature Gradient............................................................................................................................21Pressure Gradient...................................................................................................................................22What is a reservoir, and how does it develop over time?.........................................................................24Abundance and Production of Sedimentary Formations..........................................................................25PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A RESERVOIR........................................................................26Depth.................................................................................................................................................26Area and Thickness............................................................................................................................27Porosity..............................................................................................................................................28Controls on Porosity.......................................................................................................................31Permeability.......................................................................................................................................35Examples of variations in permeability and porosity........................................................................36Fluid Distribution within a Reservoir.....................................................................................................37The “Fluids First” Revolution.............................................................................................................37Reservoir Fluid Mechanics....................................................................................................................37Capillary Pressure..................................................................................................................................39Irreducible Water Saturation...............................................................................................................41Basic Geological Conditions That Create Petroleum Traps.....................................................................42Structural Traps.................................................................................................................................42Stratigraphic Traps.............................................................................................................................45Exploration and Mapping Techniques....................................................................................................48Subsurface Mapping...........................................................................................................................48Geophysical Surveys..........................................................................................................................48Seismic Surveys..............................................................................................................................48Magnetic Surveys...........................................................................................................................49Gravity Surveys..............................................................................................................................50Structural Contour Maps.................................................................................................................51
 
Basic Petroleum Geology and Log Analysis
 
Halliburton
3Basic Petroleum Geology
© 2001, Halliburton 
Cross-Sections................................................................................................................................52Isopach Maps.................................................................................................................................53Lithofacies Maps............................................................................................................................54Surface Geology....................................................................................................................................56Subsurface Geology and Formation Evaluation......................................................................................57Well Cuttings.....................................................................................................................................59Cores.................................................................................................................................................59Logging While Drilling......................................................................................................................60Formation Testing..............................................................................................................................60Wireline Well-Logging Techniques....................................................................................................61Borehole Environment...........................................................................................................................63The Basis of Log Analysis.....................................................................................................................65Log Data............................................................................................................................................65Porosity..............................................................................................................................................66Remember......................................................................................................................................66Resistivity..........................................................................................................................................66Example of changes in resistivity with changes in reservoir characteristics.........................................67Water Saturation................................................................................................................................68Important Terminology and Symbols..............................................................................................68A note on water saturation..............................................................................................................71Review of Permeability..........................................................................................................................72Reserve Estimation................................................................................................................................74How much hydrocarbon can be recovered from the reservoir?............................................................74Appendix...............................................................................................................................................76Chemical Properties of Hydrocarbons.................................................................................................76

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