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R-intro

R-intro

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Published by wwlposter
introduction to R
introduction to R

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Published by: wwlposter on Jun 22, 2012
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An Introduction to R
Notes on R: A Programming Environment or Data Analysis and GraphicsVersion 2.15.0 (2012-03-30)
W. N. Venables, D. M. Smithand the R Development Core Team
 
Copyrightc
1990 W. N. VenablesCopyrightc
1992 W. N. Venables & D. M. SmithCopyrightc
1997 R. Gentleman & R. IhakaCopyrightc
1997, 1998 M. MaechlerCopyrightc
1997– R Core Development TeamCopyrightc
1999–2012 R Development Core TeamPermission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies o this manual provided thecopyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies.Permission is granted to copy and distribute modied versions o this manual under the con-ditions or verbatim copying, provided that the entire resulting derived work is distributedunder the terms o a permission notice identical to this one.Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations o this manual into another lan-guage, under the above conditions or modied versions, except that this permission noticemay be stated in a translation approved by the R Development Core Team.ISBN 3-900051-12-7
 
i
Table o Contents
Preace
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11 Introduction and preliminaries
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
1.1 The R environment
............................................
21.2 Related sotware and documentation
............................
21.3 R and statistics
................................................
21.4 R and the window system
......................................
31.5 Using R interactively
...........................................
31.6 An introductory session
........................................
41.7 Getting help with unctions and eatures
........................
41.8 R commands, case sensitivity, etc.
..............................
51.9 Recall and correction o previous commands
....................
51.10 Executing commands rom or diverting output to a le
........
61.11 Data permanency and removing objects
.......................
6
2 Simple manipulations; numbers and vectors
. .
7
2.1 Vectors and assignment
........................................
72.2 Vector arithmetic
..............................................
82.3 Generating regular sequences
...................................
82.4 Logical vectors
.................................................
92.5 Missing values
................................................
102.6 Character vectors
.............................................
102.7 Index vectors; selecting and modiying subsets o a data set
....
112.8 Other types o objects
.........................................
3 Objects, their modes and attributes
. . . . . . . . .
3.1 Intrinsic attributes: mode and length
..........................
133.2 Changing the length o an object
..............................
143.3 Getting and setting attributes
.................................
143.4 The class o an object
.........................................
4 Ordered and unordered actors
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1 A specic example
............................................
164.2 The unction
tapply()
and ragged arrays
.....................
164.3 Ordered actors
...............................................

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