The mobile Internet has finally arrived with the worldwide deployment of high-speed packetaccess (HSPA) networks and broad availabilityof third-generation (3G) terminals, mobilebroadband USB sticks, and, increasingly, note-books with integrated HSPA modules. With flat-rate data tariffs, the usage of mobile Internethas skyrocketed in 2008. Third-generation tech-nology was developed more than a decade ago,and the uptake after launch was below expecta-tions in many cases. There are various reasonsfor that, including initial lack of handset avail-ability and initial technology performance belowpredictions.The Next Generation Mobile Networks(NGMN) Alliance has set out requirements forfuture mobile networks , and the Third Gen-eration Partnership Program (3GPP) is address-ing them with the development of long-termevolution (LTE). Among the requirements forLTE are increased average and peak data rates,reduced latency, spectrum flexibility addressingbandwidths of up to 20 MHz, and, last but notleast, reduced cost of ownership. The targets inNGMN and LTE are set challenges to ensure asignificant performance step from HSPA to anew technology generation.The performance of LTE meets the essentialNGMN requirements, but not the preferredrequirements in important key performance indi-cators (KPIs) like spectral efficiency and cell-edge throughput. Therefore, development of LTE technology is continuing beyond Release 8to address operator requirements as well asthose of the International TelecommunicationsUnion (ITU) for future technologies in thenewly identified spectrum. 3GPP has initiatedthe “LTE-Advanced” study item and definedrequirements in .The research project Enablers for AmbientServices and Systems — Part C Wide Area Cov-erage (EASY-C) is developing technologies forfuture wireless systems such as LTE-Advanced.The special feature of EASY-C is that researchideas are tested in research field testbeds at thesystem level. In EASY-C, 16 partners worktogether across the value chain, including aca-demic institutions, mobile operators, networkinfrastructure, antenna, and test equipment pro- viders, terminal chipset vendors and semiconduc-tor companies, and network planning specialists.
The radio interface of 3GPP LTE/SAE Release8 uses orthogonal frequency-division multipleaccess (OFDMA) with cyclic prefix in the down-link and single-carrier frequency-division multi-ple access (SC-FDMA) with cyclic prefix in theuplink. The physical layer of LTE is defined in abandwidth agnostic way and supports varioussystem bandwidths up to 20 MHz. Radioresources are subdivided into physical resourceblocks (PRBs) consisting of 12 subcarriers with15 kHz spacing and a time duration of 1 ms.PRBs are dynamically allocated to users in orderto realize multi-user diversity gain in both timeand frequency domains, leveraging adaptivemodulation and coding (AMC) with hybrid auto-matic repeat request (HARQ).To meet the performance requirements ,LTE Release 8 relies on multi-antenna-basedmultiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) trans-mission and reception techniques, with 2
2MIMO as the baseline for downlink and 1
IEEE Communications Magazine • February 2009
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The 3GPP LTE standard is stable now in its firstrelease (Release 8), and the question is howgood its performance is in real-world scenarios.LTE is also a good base for further innovations,but it must be proven that they offer perfor-mance advantages for the price of their complex-ity. This article evaluates the performance of LTE Release 8 as a baseline and advanced con-cepts currently in discussion such as cooperativeMIMO based on system-level simulations, andmeasurements in the laboratory and a multisitefield testbed within the EASY-C project.
LTE — 3GPP R
Ralf Irmer, VodafoneHans-Peter Mayer, Andreas Weber, Volker Braun, Michael Schmidt, Michael Ohm, and Norbert Ahr, Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs André Zoch, Signalion GmbHCarsten Jandura, Patrick Marsch, and Gerhard Fettweis, Technische Universität Dresden
Multisite Field Trial forLTE and Advanced Concepts