Current broadband wireless networks arecharacterized by large cell sizes. Yet, even in advanced networksthat will be built using 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE), alsoreferred to as 3GPP LTE-Advanced, or mobile WiMAX radiointerface, users on the cell edge will face relatively low Signal-to-Interference-plus-Noise-Ratio (SINR). An attractive solution forthis problem is provided by multihop technologies. In this paperwe consider the feasibility of Decode and Forward (DF) RelayNodes (RNs) from 3GPP LTE-Advanced perspective. We proposea novel evaluation methodology that can be used to find arelation of RN transmission power, ratio between number of BaseStations (BSs) and RNs, and performance of the system.Evaluation of DF relays in 3GPP LTE-Advanced framework indicates a good performance gain.
LTE, LTE-Advanced, Decode and Forwardrelay, cost modeling, evaluation methodology.
The Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a new air interfacedesigned by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP).The underlying radio technology is based on OrthogonalFrequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) and it appliessophisticated scheduling and multi-antenna methods. 3GPPLTE will also admit higher peak data rates and more users per cell as well as lower control plane latency than currentlyemployed 3G Wideband Code Division Multiple Access(WCDMA) and High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) . Yet,enhancements in radio link technology will not solve the basic problem related to propagation loss: coverage and capacity atthe cell border remain relatively small due to low Signal-to-Interference-plus-Noise-Ratio (SINR) .A very promising solution to overtake the above mentioned problem is represented by Relay Nodes (RNs). Deploying RNsnear the cell edge will help to increase the capacity  or,alternatively, to extend the cell coverage area . Whileconventional Amplify and Forward (AF) relays can be used toincrease the coverage, the basic problem is that they amplifynot only desired signal but also both interference and noise.Therefore AF relays provide best benefit in noise limited
Ph.D. Student at Helsinki University of Technology
system deployment while the benefit from their usage in presence of heavy interference is limited. On the other hand,Decode and Forward (DF) relays detect the desired signal andthen encode and forward it. Therefore DF relays are applicablealso in interference limited environments and thus, they can beused to improve system capacity.
This paper considers DF relaying only and thus, while usingthe term RN we refer to a DF relay node. We propose a novelevaluation methodology that can be used to find the relation of RN transmission power, ratio between number of BaseStations (BSs) and RNs, and performance of the system. Wehave adopted 3G LTE framework because discussion of therole of DF relays in evolution of 3G LTE (LTE-Advanced)has just started. Due to this selection we refer to a base station by the 3GPP term enhanced Node B (eNB).The rest of the paper is organized as follows: Section II presents the rationale behind the relay node deployment, the benefits and the scenarios that seem to be most promising. InSection III details of the adopted evaluation methodology areintroduced and results of the simulations are provided inSection IV. Conclusions are drawn in Section V.II.
We consider a simple scenario where at most two hops areallowed. Such a scenario is most attractive from a practical perspective because system complexity is strongly related tothe number of hops. This approach allows three different typesof links: by direct link we refer to the connection betweeneNB and UE, the relay link is carried out between eNB andRN, and term access link is used for the link between RN andUE.One of the expected main benefits of the relay baseddeployment is the more fair spread of the capacity over thecell. In a traditional cellular network UEs near the eNBusually experience a capacity that is higher than the one facedon the cell edge. By use of relays fairness is improved in thecell although UEs near the eNB will achieve lower peak ratesthan in single hop networks. This decrease is due to the factthat some resources must be assigned to the relay link and theinterference is increased by the RN transmissions. On the
Effect of Relaying on Coverage in3GPP LTE-Advanced
, Simone Redana
, Jyri Hämäläinen
, Bernhard Raaf
Nokia Siemens Networks, St. Martin Strasse 76, 81541, Munich, Germanysimone.firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-02015 HUT, Finland firstname.lastname@example.org
978-1-4244-2517-4/09/$20.00 ©2009 IEEE