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Published by George Marmureanu

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Published by: George Marmureanu on Jun 23, 2012
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Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 38, No. 3, March 2001, pp. 268
An Biometric Identification System by Extracting Hand Vein Patterns
, Hyung-Man
, Young-Woo
, Sang-Chan
, Soo-Won
and Chul-Hee
Department of Electronics Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701
BK System Co., Ltd, Seoul 137-130 
(Received 12 April 2000)This paper presents an ASP (application specific processor) for vein pattern extraction andits application to a biometric identification system. For the conventional vein pattern extractingalgorithm, it is necessary to use a high-priced DSP processor suitable for a floating-point operationand a real-time process. The proposed processor adopts a shift-and-add architecture for filters, sothe preprocessing algorithm can be done with a fixed-point operation, and the filter coefficients aredesigned with 7-tap CSD codes. A reliability of 99.45[%] and a verification speed of 150 ms/personwere obtained, which demonstrated enhanced performance compared to the conventional algorithm.The processor was implemented using a FPGA (field programmable gate array) device. If the priceand the performance of recognition are considered, the proposed biometric identification system isapplicable to personal identification systems, security systems,
There are many types of biometric systems commer-cially available such as fingerprints, iris/retina and handshape devices. Each of these systems has merits anddemerits. In the case of fingerprints, direct contact of the finger with the fingerprint-image-extracting sensorcauses degradation in performance, especially in fac-tory construction sites where good-quality fingerprintsare hard to obtain due to oil from the finger, moisture,dirt,
In the case of iris/retina scanners, users mustplace the eye close to the scanner, causing an uncomfort-able feeling or privacy-infringing feeling. In the case of hand-shape recognizers, problems may arise with userswho suffer from arthritis or rheumatism, so they arerarely used due to their poor performance [1,2]. Theproposed method has been developed to resolve the prob-lems stated above. Since it acquires a vein pattern imagewithout direct contact with the hand or with the vein-pattern-extracting sensor, there exists no contamination.Both user comfort and performance are improved, andstable operation is also expected.In this paper, a new, low-priced, biometric identifica-tion system using this new method is proposed. Also,if a conventional vein-pattern-extracting algorithm is tobe realized, the use of a high-priced DSP (digital sig-nal processor) is inevitable since the algorithm includes
E-mail: hmpark@asic.korea.ac.kr
a floating-point operation and should be a real-time pro-cess. To resolve this problem, we propose a new pre-process algorithm which takes 7-tap filter coefficients forwhich CSD (canonical signed digit) codes [3–5] are used.The filter is designed with a shift-and-add architectureand is only comprised of fixed-point operators. Also,the preprocessing and recognition time is remarkably im-proved using filters with different kernel sizes. This newpreprocess makes it possible to reduce the number of ac-cess times to the external memory, and the filtering ispreprocessed only a single time, not repeatedly.After analyzing the conventional algorithm in SectionII, the proposed algorithm and architecture of the pro-cessor are discussed in Section III-1. The whole archi-tecture of the proposed biometric identification system isdescribed in Section III-2; then, the performance is eval-uated from the experimental results in Section IV. Theobtained results are summarized in Section V.
The conventional vein-pattern-recognition algorithm[5] consists of an original image grab part, a preprocess-ing part, and a recognition part, and the last two partstake most of the processing time. The preprocessing partconsists of a Gaussian low-pass filter, a high-pass filter,and a modified median filter. Figure 1 shows the flow of the conventional preprocessing algorithm.
An Biometric Identification System by Extracting Hand Vein Patterns – Sang-Kyun
et al.
-269-Fig. 1. Conventional preprocessing algorithm.
The Gaussian low-pass filter applies a 3
3 spatialfilter, repeatedly, on the ROI (region of interest) imageas shown in Fig. 2.
(5) can be determined from Eq.(1).
(5) =
) (1)Then, the high-pass filter applies a 11
11 spatial filterto the ROI image. By applying the two filters above,we obtain an image with only the vein pattern empha-sized. The local threshold process, then, separates thevein pattern from the background; hence, the desiredvein image is extracted. Then, the normalization step isdone utilizing the conventional bilinear interpolation.A brief review of the conventional preprocessingmethod explained above indicates that floating-pointmultipliers and dividers are needed for all of the filter-ing processes. Also, a high-priced DSP is needed, con-sidering the preprocessing time. If a 32-bit, floating-point, ADSP-2106X were to be used, the preprocessingtime would be 700 ms/person. Therefore, a floating-
Fig. 2. Gaussian low-pass filtering.Fig. 3. Architecture of the proposed filter (shifter andadder).
point DSP with higher performance should be used inorder to achieve a preprocessing time less than 700ms/person.
1. Proposed Preprocessing Algorithm and Pro-cessor Architecture
The proposed ASP (application specific processor) for
Fig. 4. Block diagram of the proposed processor.
-270- Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 38, No. 3, March 2001Fig. 5. Block diagram of the proposed biometric identifi-cation system.
vein pattern extraction adopts a new preprocessing algo-rithm while maintaining the performance of the conven-tional one. Both the coefficients for the Gaussian low-pass filter and the low-pass filter are designed to have7-tap CSD codes at the maximum. Also, for the normal-ization, the decimation method is used. The CSD codeis an effective code for designing a FIR filter without amultiplier.The proposed preprocessing algorithm follows thesame steps as the conventional one in section II, ex-cept that the coefficients for each filter are made of CSDcodes. The general CSD code is equal to
=1, 2,
, 121,
1, 0, 1
is an inte-ger.In the first step of the preprocessing, Gaussian low-pass filter, a 11
11 spatial filter is applied on a grabbedROI image only a single time rather than applying a 3
3 spatial filter repeatedly. With this newly proposed way,access times to the external memory are reduced. Thefilter consists of 7-tap CSD codes at the maximum, whichcan be realized using a shift-and-add architecture. In thesecond step, the low-pass filter is applied with a 11
11spatial filter, and the filter coefficients are designed tocompensate for the rounding-effect due to the CSD code
Fig. 6. ROI image of the proposed system.Fig. 7. First vein pattern image of the proposed processor.
operations in the Gaussian low-pass filter. This low-passfilter also has 7-tap CSD codes at the maximum.As stated above, if the same kernel-size is utilized forboth filters, a sequentially applied filtering process canbe realized with one piece of hardware, which is a greatadvantage in terms of decreasing hardware complexity.The third step is the normalization that uses the deci-mation method, the same as down sampling, to preventcertain vein patterns from distortion. the shift-and-addarchitecture utilizing the CSD code is shown in Fig. 3,and the block diagram of the proposed processor is shownin Fig. 4.
2. Architecture of Proposed Biometric Identifica-tion System
A VPRS (vein pattern recognition system) using theproposed processor was implemented as shown in Fig.5. The system architecture consisted of a user interfaceblock, a microprocessor for system control, an ASP forvein pattern extraction, and a memory for processingthe algorithm. The user interface block takes a user’sPIN (personal identification number) as an input andindicates the verification result if the user is permittedor rejected in the recognition mode and is registeredor deleted in the registering mode. The microproces-sor manages the users’ DB (databases), such as the DBregister, DB delete, and administration of supervisorsand managers, and controls the proposed processor. TheASP for vein pattern extraction takes five steps:
Fig. 8. Final vein pattern image of the proposed processor.

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