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QM

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Published by cosmofloyd
Las conferencias de Mecanica Cuantica del Profesor Carlos Ramirez UIS
Las conferencias de Mecanica Cuantica del Profesor Carlos Ramirez UIS

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Published by: cosmofloyd on Jun 24, 2012
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05/21/2013

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Quantum Mechanics
Carlos RamirezMarch 29, 2012
 
2Science is built up of facts, as a house is with stones. But a collection of facts is nomore a science than a heap of stones is a house. Henri PoincareThe scientist does not study nature because it is useful to do so. He studies itbecause he takes pleasure in it, and he takes pleasure in it because it is beautiful.If nature were not beautiful it would not be worth knowing, and life would not beworth living. I am not speaking, of course, of the beauty which strikes the senses,of the beauty of qualities and appearances. I am far from despising this, but it hasnothing to do with science. What I mean is that more intimate beauty which comesfrom the harmonious order of its parts, and which a pure intelligence can grasp.Henri PoincareQuantum theory is used in a huge variety of applications in everyday life, includ-ing lasers, CDs, DVDs, solar cells, fibre-optics, digital cameras, photocopiers, bar-code readers, fluorescent lights, LED lights, computer screens, transistors, semi-conductors, super-conductors, spectroscopy, MRI scanners, etc, etc. By some esti-mates, over 25% of the GDP of developed countries is directly based on quantumphysics. It even explains the nuclear fusion processes taking place inside stars.
 
Contents
1.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131.1.1 Importance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131.1.2 History. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131.1.3 Natural Units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181.2 General properties of the Schr¨odinger Equation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181.2.1 Linearity, Superposition principle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181.2.2 Time Independent Schr¨odinger Equation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191.2.3 Boundary Conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191.2.4 Interpretation, Probability conservation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201.2.5 Expected values, Momentum space, Eigenvalues and Dirac Notation. . . 201.2.6 Heisenberg Uncertainty principle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211.2.7 Correspondence Principle and Ehrenfest Theorem. . . . . . . . . . . . . 221.3 Simple Potentials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231.3.1 Free Particle (Plane Wave). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231.3.2 Step Potential. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281.3.3 Potential Barrier (Ramsauer and Tunnel effects). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291.3.4 Infinite Potential Well. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321.3.5 Finite Potential Well. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341.4 Harmonic oscillator (1-D). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361.5 Exercises, Schr¨odinger Equation (1-D). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391.5.1 Matter waves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391.5.2 Other wells and steps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431.5.3 Infinite well. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481.5.4 Harmonic Oscillator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491.5.5 Other Potentials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521.6 Basic References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551.6.1 Complemetary math. references. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561.6.2 Matter Waves references. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
2.1 Center of mass motion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 632.2 Cartesian coordinates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643

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