Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
0Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
ph alkalinity explained

ph alkalinity explained

Ratings: (0)|Views: 4|Likes:
Published by Dean Dsouza

More info:

Published by: Dean Dsouza on Jun 24, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

12/21/2012

pdf

text

original

 
 
1
 
Relationship between pH and Alkalinity
Introduction
Alkalinity and pH are used in water treatment as an indication of the scaling or corrosion potential of water andthey are often confused as to their relationship and interpretation. This paper will help to distinguish thedifference between them and why the difference is important in water treatment.Simply stated, the measurement of pH broadly indicates acidity, alkalinity or neutrality of a water solution andcontrolling a water treatment program on pH alone can be problematic. For example, an alkalinity titrationdefines the form of alkalinity as being bicarbonate, carbonate or hydrate alkalinity. In boiler water treatment, Itis the hydrate alkalinity form that is important for proper sludge conditioning. Measuring pH in boiler water willnot define the hydrate alkalinity.
Drew Marine
 
 
2
pH
Pure water dissociates to form hydrogen ions, H
+
, and hydroxide ions, OH
-
as seen in the following equation:H
2
O
H
+
+ OH
-
 At equilibrium, the concentration of the hydrogen ion times the concentration of the hydroxide ion is a constantvalue, known as the dissociation constant. For water, the dissociation constant is 10
-14
or 0.00000000000001.It is cumbersome to refer to hydrogen and hydroxide ion concentrations in this way, so to simplify matters thehydrogen ion concentration is expressed as the negative logarithm. As an example, the negative logarithm of10
-7
becomes 7. The abbreviation for the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration is pH. Theabbreviation for the negative logarithm of the hydroxyl ion concentration is pOH. The simplified equilibriumreaction equation becomes:pH + pOH = 14The relationships between H+, OH-, pH and pOH are shown below.H+ OH- pH pOH10
 
-1
10
-13
1 1310
-2
10
-12
2 1210
-3
10
-11
3 1110
-4
10
-10
4 1010
-5
10
-9
5 910
-6
10
-8
6 810
-7
10
-7
7 710
-8
10
-6
8 610
-9
10
-5
9 510
-10
10
-4
10 410
-11
10
-3
11 310
-12
10
-2
12 210
-13
10
-1
13 1The pH scale of 0 to 14 indicates the acidity or alkalinity of a water sample, with 7 being the midpoint notingneutrality. As the hydrogen ion concentration increases, the solution becomes more acidic and the pHdecreases. As the hydrogen ion concentration decreases, the solution becomes more alkaline and the pHincreases.Since pH is a logarithmic function, as the hydrogen ion concentration increases by a factor of 10, the pHdecreases by one unit. Conversely, as the hydroxide ion concentration increases by a factor of 10, the pHincreases by one unit.Changes in pH are caused by the addition of acids (substances that contribute hydrogen ions) and bases(substances that contribute hydroxide ions) to the water. Theoretically pure water, such as distilled ordeionized water has a pH of 7.0. However, carbon dioxide gas dissolved in the water can cause the pH to be6.5 or lower. Other impurities may have an effect on the pH.Measuring pH in buffered waters (waters containing alkalinity that is released when titrated with acid) is fairlystraightforward. Measuring pH in high-purity waters can be problematic since these waters are unbuffered andcan exhibit wide fluctuations in pH as a result of even a slight amount of contamination.
 
 
3
Alkalinity
In natural water, the carbon dioxide, carbonate, and bicarbonate alkalinity equilibrium determine and controlsthe pH of the water. In water chemistry, the alkalinity equilibrium is measured and reported as ppm P alkalinityand ppm T alkalinity using color indicators such as phenolphthalein and bromcresol green methyl red that showa distinct color change with changes in pH.P alkalinity exists when the pH is greater than 8.3. A good example of water having a P alkalinity is boilerwater. When boiler water is titrated with acid, the pH steadily decreases as more and more acid is added.When phenolphthalein is used as the titration indicator, the color of the boiler water sample will change frompink to colorless when the pH of the sample has decreased to 8.3. This is the P alkalinity or Phenolphthaleinalkalinity and represents all of the hydroxide alkalinity, ½ of the carbonate alkalinity, and 1/3 of the phosphateand any other alkali producing material present in the sample above a pH of 8.3.T alkalinity exists when the pH is greater than 4.3. When bromcresol green methyl red indicator is then addedto the boiler water sample above, it will turn a blue green color. As more acid is added, the sample will changeto a form a pinkish purple color when a pH of 4.3 is reached. This is the T alkalinity and represents all of thehydroxide, all of the carbonate, and 2/3 of the phosphate and other alkali producing material present in thesample above a pH of 4.3.Although the P and T alkalinity do not bear any direct relationship to pH, the readings can be used to determinethe carbonate and bicarbonate concentrations in a water sample. The alkalinity determinations represent thefollowing:If P alkalinity = 0, all of the alkalinity is bicarbonateT alkalinity – 2P alkalinity = carbonate alkalinity2P – T alkalinity = hydroxide alkalinityThe pH of natural waters is normally less than 8.3 so there is no P alkalinity. They also do not normally have apH below 4.3 so they do not contain strong mineral acids.A graphic representation of the approximate relationship between pH and alkalinity is shown in Figure 1.
Approximate pH and Alkalinity RelationshipFigure 1
 
1413121110987654321pHHydroxide alkalinity(OH)Carbonate alkalinity(CO
3
)P alkalinity endpointT alkalinity endpointNeutralFree Mineral AcidityCarbon Dioxide escapesBicarbonate alkalinity(HCO
3
)

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->