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MB 0050 Assignment Paper (1)

MB 0050 Assignment Paper (1)

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Published by Mohammed Gulraiz

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Published by: Mohammed Gulraiz on Jun 24, 2012
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MB 0050: Research Methodology
1)How is a research problem formulated?Ans)
 The problem selected for research may initially be a vague topic. Thequestion to be studied or the problem to be solved may not be known. Hence theselected problem should be defined and formulated. This is a difficult process. Itrequires intensive reading of a few selected articles or chapters in books in orderto understand the nature of the problem selected. The process of defining a problem includes:
1. Developing title:
 The title should be carefully worded. It should indicate thecore of the study, reflect the real intention of the researcher, and show on what isthe focus e.g., “Financing small-scale industries by commercial banks.” This showsthat the focus is on commercial banks and not on small-scale industries. On theother hand, if the title is “The Financial Problem of Small-scale industries”, thefocus is on small-scale industries.
2. Building a conceptual model:
On the basis of our theoretical knowledge of the phenomenon under study, the nature of the phenomenon, its properties /elements and their inter-relations should be identified and structured into aframework. This conceptual model gives an exact idea of the research problemand shows its various properties and variables to be studied. It serves as a basisfor the formulation of the objectives of the study, on the hypothesis to be tested.In order to workout a conceptual model we must make a careful and critical studyof the available literature on the subject-matter of the selected research problem.It is for this reason; a researcher is expected to select a problem for research in hisfield of specialization. Without adequate background knowledge, a researchercannot grasp and comprehend the nature of the research problem.
3. Define the Objective of the Study:
 The objectives refer to the questions tobe answered through the study. They indicate what we are trying to get throughthe study. The objectives are derived from the conceptual model. They state whichelements in the conceptual model-which levels of, which kinds of cases, whichproperties, and which connections among properties – are to be investigated, butit is the conceptual model that defines, describes, and states the assumptionsunderlying these elements. The objectives may aim at description or explanationor analysis of causal relationship between variables, and indicate the expectedresults or outcome of the study. The objectives may be specified in the form of either the statements or the questions.
2)What are the characteristics of good research design?Ans)
Horton and Hunt have given following characteristics of scientific research:1.
Verifiable evidence:
 That is factual observations which other observers cansee and check.2.
 That is describing what really exists. It means truth or correctness of a statement or describing things exactly as they are and avoiding jumping tounwarranted conclusions either by exaggeration or fantasizing.3.
 That is making it as exact as necessary, or giving exact number ormeasurement. This avoids colourful literature and vague meanings.4.
 That is attempting to find all the relevant data, or collectingdata in a systematic and organized way so that the conclusions drawn are reliable.Data based on casual recollections are generally incomplete and give unreliable judgments and conclusions.5.
 That is free being from all biases and vested interests. It meansobservation is unaffected by the observer’s values, beliefs and preferences to the
extent possible and he is able to see and accept facts as they are, not as he mightwish them to be.6.
 That is jotting down complete details as quickly as possible. Sincehuman memory is fallible, all data collected are recorded.7.
Controlling conditions:
 That is controlling all variables except one and thenattempting to examine what happens when that variable is varied. This is the basictechnique in all scientific experimentation – allowing one variable to vary whileholding all other variables constant.8.
Training investigators:
 That is imparting necessary knowledge toinvestigators to make them understand what to look for, how to interpret in andavoid inaccurate data collection.
3)How case study method is useful in business research?Ans)
In-depth analysis of selected cases is of particular value to business researchwhen a complex set of variables may be at work in generating observed resultsand intensive study is needed to unravel the complexities. For instance, an in-depth study of a firm’s top sales people and comparison with the worst salespeople might reveal characteristics common to stellar performers. The exploratoryinvestigator is best served by the active curiosity and willingness to deviate fromthe initial plan, when the finding suggests new courses of enquiry, might provemore productive
4)Distinguish between schedules and questionnaires?Ans)
Questionnaires are mailed to the respondent whereas schedules are carriedby the investigator himself. Questionnaires can be filled by the respondent only if he is able to understand the language in which it is written and he is supposed tobe a literate. This problem can be overcome in case of schedule since theinvestigator himself carries the schedules and the respondent’s response isaccordingly taken. A questionnaire is filled by the respondent himself whereas theschedule is filled by the investigator.
5)What are the contents of Research report?Ans)
 The outline of a research report is given below:I.
Prefatory Items
 Title page
 Table of contents
List of tables
List of graphs/figures/charts
Abstract or synopsisII.
Body of the Report
 Theoretical background of the topic
Statement of the problem
Review of literature
 The scope of the study
 The objectives of the study
Hypothesis to be tested
Definition of the concepts
Models if any
Design of the study
Method of data collectionSources of data
Sampling plan
Data collection instruments
Field work
Data processing and analysis plan
Overview of the report
Limitation of the study
Results: findings and discussions
Summary, conclusions and recommendationsIII.
Reference Material
Copies of data collection instruments
 Technical details on sampling plan
Complex tables
Glossary of new terms used.
6)Write short notes on the following:a.Medianb.Standard DeviationAns) a. Median
Median is the middlemost item of a given series. In individual series, we arrangethe given data according to ascending or descending order and take themiddlemost item as the median. When two values occur in the middle, we take theaverage of these two values as median. Since median is the central value of anordered distribution, there occur equal number of values to the left and right of themedian.
Individual series
Median = (N+ 1 / 2)th item
Standard deviation
Standard deviation is the most important measure of dispersion. It satisfies mostof the properties of a good measure of dispersion. It was introduced by KarlPearson in 1893. Standard deviation is defined as the mean of the squareddeviations from the arithmetic mean. Standard deviation is denoted by the GreekletterMean deviation and standard deviation are calculated from deviation of each andevery item. Standard deviation is different from mean deviation in two respects.First of all, algebraic signs are ignored in calculating mean deviation. Secondly,signs are taken into account in calculating standard deviation whereas, meandeviation can be found from mean, median or mode. Whereas, standard deviationis found only from mean.Standard deviation can be computed in two methods1. Taking deviation from actual mean2. Taking deviation from assumed mean.

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