effects in the dies, cooling in between thedies and linking mechanical properties of the final wire to the deformation is discussedin this paper. Supported by measurementson drawing and cooling systems of anindustrial wiredrawing machine producingsteel wires, the simulation model is devel-oped as a virtual wire drawing tool for fur-ther experimentation and optimization.
Models for wiredrawing simulationinclude deformation of wire, heat genera-tion and dissipation in the wire and the dies,cooling of the wire in the atmosphere and onthe cooling drum. Fig. 1 shows the wiredrawing operation. The effect of multiple passes is modeled by taking into account thecarry-over effect of previous passes such as plastic strain, residual stresses and tempera-ture. Given input conditions such as thematerial properties of the wire, wire diame-ter, die pass schedule, drawing speed, cool-ing in the die and drum, friction, etc., thesimulator predicts the internal stresses andstrains in the wire and the die, load on thedie and drums, temperature of wire and diesand final wire mechanical properties. It is possible to see all these aspects at each passto a great detail. See Fig. 2.Both deformation and thermal analysis of the wire and die in the drawing zone for asingle pass are based on a finite elementmethod. It is assumed that the deformationand temperature of wire and dies remainsaxisymmetric. Cooling of wire before andon the drum is simulated using a finite dif-ference method. A suitable algorithm trans-fers data from one pass to the next. Empiri-cal relation is used to predict the final wireUTS by relating to the effective plastic strainand initial UTS. Measures in terms of com- puted parameters are used for qualitativeassessment of other mechanical propertiessuch as ductility and torsion- strength. Theheat transfer is modeled as a steady state sit-uation as the time required for reaching thesteady state thermal conditions in a transientanalysis is prohibitively large whereas this isrelatively small for deformation analysis. Itis found that this kind of assumption workswell. The following sections give a brief account of the models used in the simulator.
Wire Deformation Model.
A finite elementmodel based on large-deformation andlarge-strain plasticity is used for the analysis.Four noded isoparametric elements are used.The contact between the dies and the work piece is modeled by a penalty parameter approach. Frictional conditions are takeninto account either through a Coulomb fric-tion condition or friction factor. The die isassumed to be rigid for the deformationanalysis of wire. As material deformationoccurs at low temperatures, it is assumedthat material properties do not vary withtemperature. Material is modeled as elasto- plastic with isotropic von-Mises yield crite-ria. The wire drawn through large number of passes develops anisotropy. However, dueto lack of sufficient data and modeling tech-niques and fairly good results that can beobtained with isotropic assumption,anisotropy was not used. Detailed accountof nonlinear finite element analysis of largestrain plastic deformation can be found
Thermal model of wire.
The evolution of temperature field with time is computed bysolving the standard thermal conductivityequation. The energy release due to plastic
Gautham JoshiGoyal GudadheSinghSurya Kumar Singh is head of wiretechnology at Tata Steel Wire Divi-sion, Mumbai, India. He is involvedin the product design and processdevelopment of steel wire for differ-ent applications, including prestress-ing steel wire and strand, motor tirebead wire, wire for power transmis-sion lines, galvanized wire, cablearmor wire, spring wire, welding elec-trodes, and spoke wire. He has morethan 19 years’ experience in commer-cial production of reinforcing bar,wire rods, steel wire, structural steels,and coated steel products. He holds aPh.D. degree from the materialsdepartment of the Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine,London, U.K. He has published 35technical papers in various journalsand international conference proceed-ings. B.P. Gautham leads the defor-mation processing activities at TataResearch Development and DesignCentre, a division of Tata Consultan-cy Services Ltd., Pune, India. Hisinterests include deformation analy-sis in metal forming and solidifica-tion. He has worked closely with vari-ous industries in enhancing manufac-turing processes including quality,productivity, and energy. He holds aPh.D. degree in applied mechanicsfrom the Indian Institute of Technolo-gy (IIT) – Chennai. Sharad Goyal, ascientist at Tata Research Develop-ment and Design Centre, researchesdeformation processing and finite ele-ment analysis. He holds an M.S.degree from IIT, Kanpur. Amol Joshiworks at Tata Research Developmentand Design Centre, where heresearches virtual environments, par-allel computing, nonlinear finite ele-ment analysis, and grid-free methods.He is currently pursuing an M.S.degree at IIT and holds a B.S. degreefrom the College of Engineering,Pune, India. Dinesh Gudadhe is man-ager wire technology at the Wire Divi-sion of Tata Steel. He has experiencein drawing ferrous wire and processand product development activities aswell as heat treatment, continuouscasting of steel, process control andquality systems. He holds a degree inmetallurgy from IIM – Kolkata.