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Published by Phani Kumar

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Published by: Phani Kumar on Jun 25, 2012
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roduction of metal wires by a drawing process has been in existence for many cen-turies and widely studied over the past cen-tury. A historical account of wire productioncan be found
. Steel wires have a large vol-ume and utility out of wires manufacturedfrom various. Mathematical analysis of wiredrawing pioneered by Avitzur 
and oth-ers
has provided considerable insight intothe mechanics of wiredrawing. These mod-els emphasize the estimation of draw force,effect of friction and die angle during draw-ing by establishing analytical relations between these parameters. Some modelshave correction factors to account for theapproximations on the displacement/veloci-ty fields and can be used for obtaining theoptimal die angles. Application of personalcomputers in designing wiredrawing opera-tions is utilized
. These applications usedanalytical relations discussed above.More sophisticated analysis based onUBEM
and FEA
are subsequentlyused to carry out detailed analysis. Some of these deal with residual stresses and plasticstrain
, central burst
and tempera-ture
 besides the gross parameters such asdraw force. The possibility of central burst isanalyzed either by looking at the triaxialityof the stress state on the central line or asaccumulated damage
. Central burst in thewire during drawing impacts productivity.Residual stresses and strains in the drawnwire and the temperature attained by it dur-ing drawing operation have direct impact onthe mechanical properties. Though thedevelopments discussed above addressanalysis of single pass wire drawing, focuson the effect of multiple passes is less fre-quently found. Jo et al
have analyzed thetemperature of drawn wire in a multipassdry wire-drawing of high carbon steels.In a typical wiredrawing operation, anumber of parameters need to be addressed besides the draw forces, which are cumula-tive effects of all passes. These include thedegree of non-uniformity of deformation,changes in mechanical properties of wire,temperature of wire at the contact interfaceand history of temperature, residual stressesand cumulative effects on wire-breakage.A comprehensive simulation model for multi-pass wiredrawing operation, takinginto account deformation and thermal
Development of a virtual wiredrawingtool for process analysis and optimization
Expirements showed that an FEM tool designed to simulate drawing can generate practical information, and that it may be possible to further expand its scope in the future.
By Surya Kumar Singh, B.P. Gautham, Sharad Goyal, Amol Joshi and Dinesh Gudadhe
 Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of wiredrawing machine.Fig. 2. Schematic of wiredrawing simulator.
effects in the dies, cooling in between thedies and linking mechanical properties of the final wire to the deformation is discussedin this paper. Supported by measurementson drawing and cooling systems of anindustrial wiredrawing machine producingsteel wires, the simulation model is devel-oped as a virtual wire drawing tool for fur-ther experimentation and optimization.
Simulation models
Models for wiredrawing simulationinclude deformation of wire, heat genera-tion and dissipation in the wire and the dies,cooling of the wire in the atmosphere and onthe cooling drum. Fig. 1 shows the wiredrawing operation. The effect of multiple passes is modeled by taking into account thecarry-over effect of previous passes such as plastic strain, residual stresses and tempera-ture. Given input conditions such as thematerial properties of the wire, wire diame-ter, die pass schedule, drawing speed, cool-ing in the die and drum, friction, etc., thesimulator predicts the internal stresses andstrains in the wire and the die, load on thedie and drums, temperature of wire and diesand final wire mechanical properties. It is possible to see all these aspects at each passto a great detail. See Fig. 2.Both deformation and thermal analysis of the wire and die in the drawing zone for asingle pass are based on a finite elementmethod. It is assumed that the deformationand temperature of wire and dies remainsaxisymmetric. Cooling of wire before andon the drum is simulated using a finite dif-ference method. A suitable algorithm trans-fers data from one pass to the next. Empiri-cal relation is used to predict the final wireUTS by relating to the effective plastic strainand initial UTS. Measures in terms of com- puted parameters are used for qualitativeassessment of other mechanical propertiessuch as ductility and torsion- strength. Theheat transfer is modeled as a steady state sit-uation as the time required for reaching thesteady state thermal conditions in a transientanalysis is prohibitively large whereas this isrelatively small for deformation analysis. Itis found that this kind of assumption workswell. The following sections give a brief account of the models used in the simulator.
 Wire Deformation Model.
A finite elementmodel based on large-deformation andlarge-strain plasticity is used for the analysis.Four noded isoparametric elements are used.The contact between the dies and the work  piece is modeled by a penalty parameter approach. Frictional conditions are takeninto account either through a Coulomb fric-tion condition or friction factor. The die isassumed to be rigid for the deformationanalysis of wire. As material deformationoccurs at low temperatures, it is assumedthat material properties do not vary withtemperature. Material is modeled as elasto- plastic with isotropic von-Mises yield crite-ria. The wire drawn through large number of  passes develops anisotropy. However, dueto lack of sufficient data and modeling tech-niques and fairly good results that can beobtained with isotropic assumption,anisotropy was not used. Detailed accountof nonlinear finite element analysis of largestrain plastic deformation can be found
 Thermal model of wire.
The evolution of temperature field with time is computed bysolving the standard thermal conductivityequation. The energy release due to plastic
Gautham JoshiGoyal GudadheSinghSurya Kumar Singh is head of wiretechnology at Tata Steel Wire Divi-sion, Mumbai, India. He is involvedin the product design and processdevelopment of steel wire for differ-ent applications, including prestress-ing steel wire and strand, motor tirebead wire, wire for power transmis-sion lines, galvanized wire, cablearmor wire, spring wire, welding elec-trodes, and spoke wire. He has morethan 19 years’ experience in commer-cial production of reinforcing bar,wire rods, steel wire, structural steels,and coated steel products. He holds aPh.D. degree from the materialsdepartment of the Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine,London, U.K. He has published 35technical papers in various journalsand international conference proceed-ings. B.P. Gautham leads the defor-mation processing activities at TataResearch Development and DesignCentre, a division of Tata Consultan-cy Services Ltd., Pune, India. Hisinterests include deformation analy-sis in metal forming and solidifica-tion. He has worked closely with vari-ous industries in enhancing manufac-turing processes including quality,productivity, and energy. He holds aPh.D. degree in applied mechanicsfrom the Indian Institute of Technolo-gy (IIT) – Chennai. Sharad Goyal, ascientist at Tata Research Develop-ment and Design Centre, researchesdeformation processing and finite ele-ment analysis. He holds an M.S.degree from IIT, Kanpur. Amol Joshiworks at Tata Research Developmentand Design Centre, where heresearches virtual environments, par-allel computing, nonlinear finite ele-ment analysis, and grid-free methods.He is currently pursuing an M.S.degree at IIT and holds a B.S. degreefrom the College of Engineering,Pune, India. Dinesh Gudadhe is man-ager wire technology at the Wire Divi-sion of Tata Steel. He has experiencein drawing ferrous wire and processand product development activities aswell as heat treatment, continuouscasting of steel, process control andquality systems. He holds a degree inmetallurgy from IIM – Kolkata.
deformation and friction on the boundaryare accounted for heat generation. The ther-mal energy release rate due to a plasticdeformation is given by:Eq. (1)where,
is the fraction of plastic work con-verted to heat. Rate of heat generation onthe wire-die interface due to friction is given by:Eq. (2)where
are the coefficient of friction, normal stress on the surface and rel-ative velocity on the interface respectively. A part of the generated frictional heat is con-sumed in melting the lubricant and is carried by it. This acts as a correction through
inthe above equation where
is the partitionof the heat transferred to the body being ana-lyzed, which is not spent in lubrication. Heattransfer between die and wire is modeled asequivalent heat convection. The tempera-tures of die are calculated in a loosely cou- pled model as described in the next section.The thermal finite element model is simi-lar to that of stress element with four nodesand same interpolation functions. Detailscan be found
and final equations solvedwith appropriate boundary conditions.
  Die models.
Die stresses are evaluated bytransferring the reaction load to appropriatenodes. A standard elastic finite elementmodel is used. Heat transfer on the interfacewith wire is modeled as described earlier.Boundary conditions are taken based on thedie mounting arrangement. Heat generatedon the surface due to friction is added appro- priately. Heat loss from die and casing to aiand water are modeled using standard con-vection type boundary conditions. Watersidetemperature is computed by carrying out aheat balance for the water flowing in the die.The die has a carbide insert in a steel casting.The interface between carbide and steel isassumed to have matched temperatures.
  Drum cooling model.
Cooling of wire out-side of the deformation zone is modeled as acase of heat loss from an axisymmetric crosssection of wire with heat loss through con-vection on the surface. It is assumed thatthere is no axial heat flow in the wire. Dif-ferent HTC are applied for the period thewire is in air and on the drum. Wire heatloss on the drum is caused by contact heattransfer between a small arc of the cross sec-tion of the wire and the drum, heat convec-tion to the surrounding air and conductionthrough the trapped air between the wind-ings of wire on the drum. The entire mecha-nism is lumped as a single heat transfer coefficient with ambient temperature as theaverage water temperature of drum inlet and
Fig. 3. Boundary conditions on wire fordeformation analysis.Fig. 4. Arrangement of thermocouples in die.

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