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A FUNCTIONAL DETERMINANT FOR THE RIEMANN XI FUNCTION

A FUNCTIONAL DETERMINANT FOR THE RIEMANN XI FUNCTION

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i give a functional determinant representation for the Riemann Xi function ,given a Hamiltonian with a certain potential f(x) using teh WKB method i obtain a Hamiltonian such as det(H-s(1-s)) is just the Riemann Xi function, so all the zeros of the Riemann Xi function lie on the critical line on the complex plane Re(s) 1/2
i give a functional determinant representation for the Riemann Xi function ,given a Hamiltonian with a certain potential f(x) using teh WKB method i obtain a Hamiltonian such as det(H-s(1-s)) is just the Riemann Xi function, so all the zeros of the Riemann Xi function lie on the critical line on the complex plane Re(s) 1/2

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Published by: Jose Javier Garcia Moreta on Jun 25, 2012
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A FUNCTIONAL DETERMINANT EXPRESSIONFOR THE RIEMANN XI-FUNCTION
Jose Javier Garcia MoretaGraduate student of Physics at the UPV/EHU (University of Basque country)In Solid State PhysicsAddres: Practicantes Adan y Grijalba 2 5 GP.O 644 48920 Portugalete Vizcaya (Spain)Phone: (00) 34 685 77 16 53E-mail: josegarc2002@yahoo.esMSC: 34L05 , 34L15, 65F40 , 35Q40 , 81Q05 , 81Q50
 ABSTRACT: We give and interpretation of the Riemann Xi-function
()
 s
ξ 
as thequotient of two functional determinants of an Hermitian Hamiltonian
 H
=
. To getthe potential of this Hamiltonian we use the WKB method to approximate and evaluatethe spectral Theta function
2
()exp()
nn
t
γ  
Θ =
over the Riemann zeros on thecritical strip
0Re()1
 s
< <
. Using the WKB method we manage to get the potentialinside the Hamiltonian
 H 
, also we evaluate the functional determinant
2
det()
 H
+
 by means of Zeta regularization, we discuss the similarity of our method to the methodapplied to get the Zeros of the Selberg Zeta function
Keywords: = 
Riemann Hypothesis, Functional determinant, WKB semiclassical Approximation , Trace formula ,Bolte’s law, Quantum chaos.
1.Riemann Zeta function and Selberg Zeta function
Let be a Riemann Surface with constant negative curvature and the modular group
(2,)
 PSLR
, Selberg [14] studied the problem of the Laplacian
2 22 22 2
1(,)(,)4
n n n n n
 yxyExyE xy
 = + Ψ = Ψ = +  
(1)These momenta
n
are the non-trivial zeros of the Selberg Zeta function, whichcan be defined by an Euler product over the Geodesic of the surface in ananalogy with the Riemann Zeta function
( )
( )0
1() ()1()(1)
 s  sn P n
 sZsN p
ζ 
+=
= =
(2)
1
 
Selberg also studied a Trace formula which relates the Zeros (momenta of theLaplacian
) on the critical line
102
n
 Zik 
 + =  
and the length of the Geodesic of the Surface in the form
( )
1/2 1/2. .0
()ln()()()tanh(ln()4()()
nn P p p o
 DNhkdkkhkkgN NPN
 µ π π 
= +
∫ 
(3)Here, p.p.o means that we are taking the sum over the length of the Geodesic,
()
h
is a test function and
()
 g
is the Fourier cosine transform of 
()
h
 
0
1()()cos()2
 gkdxhxkx
π 
=
∫ 
()
 D
 µ 
is the area of the fundamental domain describingthe Riemann surface . In case we had a surface with the length of the Geodesic
ln()ln
 NPp
=
for ‘p’ on the second side of the equation a prime number,thenthe Selberg Trace is very similar to the Riemann-weil sum formula [12]
1
()1'1()2(0)ln2(ln)()2242
n
inishhggndshsn
γ  
γ π π 
=−∞
Λ Γ  = + + Γ  
∫ 
(4)
This formula (4) related a sum over the imaginary part of the Riemann zeros toanother sum over the primes, here
ln()0 otherwise
 pnpn
=Λ
with ‘k’ a positiveinteger is the Mangoldt function, in case
ln()ln
 NPp
=
both zeta function of Selberg and Riemann are related by
( )
0
1()
n
ns Zs
ζ 
=
= +
and their logarithmicderivative is quite similar if we set the function
1
ln()()1()
 geodesic
 N P  N
Λ =
1 . .
''()() ()()()
 s s geodesicn P p p o
 Z  snnsPN Z 
ζ ζ 
=
= Λ = Λ
(5)In both cases the Riemann and Selberg zeta functions obey a similar functionalequation which relates the value at s and 1-s
1/20
()(1)exp()()4
 s
 D ZsvtanvdvcZs
 µ π π 
 = +  
∫ 
 
(1)()()
 sss
ζ ζ 
= Χ
(6)The constant of integration ‘c’ is determined by setting
1/2
 s
=
, and
( )
()22()cos2
 s
 s ss
π π 
  Χ = Γ   
for the case of the Riemann zeta function.With the aid of the Selberg Trace formula (3) , we can evaluate the Eigenvaluestaircase for the Laplacian
( )
2 2 2
 x y
 y
= ∂ +∂
 
2
 
( )
20
1()111()tanharg442
n
 p E E n
 D N E p dkkh k k Z ip
 µ π π π 
 = + = = + +  
∫ 
(7)Here
14
 p
=
, we can inmediatly see that the smooth part of (7) satisfyWeyl’s law in dimension 2
()()4
 smooth
 D NE
 µ π 
, the oscillatory part of (7) satisfyBolte’s semiclassical law [4] (page 34, theorem 2.10 )
1arg2
 Zi
λ π 
 +  
with
1
λ 
=
, the branch of the logarithm inside (7) is chosen, so
1arg02
 Z 
 =  
in thiscase the Selberg Zeta function is the dynamical zeta function of a Quantumsystem and the Energies are related to the zeros of 
()
 Zs
.
2.
A functional determinant for the Riemann Xi function
()
 s
ξ 
From the analogies between the Riemann Zeta function and the Selberg Zetafunction, we could ask ourselves if there is a Hamiltonian operator (the simplestsecond order differential operator which has a classical and quantum meaningand it is well studied )in the form
222
()()()()() (0)0()
nn n n n n n n n
dx HxVxxExdx
γ  
ΨΨ = + Ψ = Ψ Ψ = = Ψ =
(8)So for the Riemann Xi-function
/2
1()(1)()(1)22
 s
 s sssss
ξ π ζ ξ 
 = Γ =   
we havethat
102
n
i
ξ 
 + =  
n
, the potential is given by
() 0()0
 fxxVx x
>
, atx=0 there is a infinite wall so the particle inside the well can not penetrate theregion
0
 x
<
. For the case of the Hamiltonian (8) the exact Eigenvaluestaircase is [9]
( )
1111()()arg1arg22
nn
 E  NEHEEiEi
ϑ ξ ζ π π π 
 = = + = + + +  
(9)With
1 x>0()0 x<0
 Hx
,
11()arglnln...42222848
TTTT Tie
π ϑ π π 
 = Γ + + +  
 Also we will prove how the Riemann Xi function
()
 s
ξ 
is proportional to thefunctional determinant
( )
det(1)
 Hss
, and how the density of states can be
3

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