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Perception and Coordination

Perception and Coordination



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Published by simouny

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: simouny on Jan 07, 2009
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Perception andCoordination
-conscious recognition and interpretation(awareness) of the sensory stimuli that serve as a basis forunderstanding, learning and knowing or for the motivation of a particular action or reaction
-when action or reaction towards astimulus is occurring in a purposeful, orderly fashion,appropriate response to a stimulus
Role of Nervous System:
1.Reciprocally interact with the environment2.Maintain homeostasis (with the endocrine system)
1.Sensory-interpret incoming message2.Integrative-analyze, store, make decisions regardingappropriate behavior3.Motor-initiating muscular or glandular activity;ongoing and evolving interaction with environment
Ventricles and CSF
Ventricles- four fluid-filled cavities within the brainthat connect one another and with the spinal canal
CSF- form in the choroids plexus; about 135 cc
Provide nutrients
Allow fluid shifts3 essential components of skull:1.Brain tissue-78%2.Blood -12 %3.CSF-10%
Monro-Kellie Hypothesis
If volume added to the cranial vault equals thevolume displaced from it, the total intracranial volumewill not changeNormal ICP: 60-150 mmH
0 or 0-15 mmHg
Normal Compensatory Adaptations:
Increases CSF absorption
Displacement of CSF into the spinal subarachnoidspace—space between arachnoid and pia mater)
Collapse of the cerebral veins and dural sinusesOther mechanisms:
Distensibility of the dura
Increased venous outflow
Decreased CSF production
Constriction and vasodilation
Slight compression of brain tissue
Cerebral Blood Flow
Amount of blood in milliliters passingthrough 100g of brain tissue in 1 minute
Global CBF-approximately 50 ml/min
Brain needs constant supply of oxygen andglucose (20% of body’s oxygen, 25% of body’s glucose)More than 10 minutes of oxygen deprivation-brain deathWhite matter-less perfusion (bundles of fibers, terminal ends)Gray matter-more perfusion (body of neurons)
Sources of Blood supply:
1.Internal carotid arteries-anterior circulation,ipsilateral hemispheres2.Vertebral arteries-posterior circulation, posteriorfossa
Circle of Willis
act as a safety valve; arises from basilararteries and internal carotid arteries;vascular network at the base of the brain
is important to total brain circulationbecause it provides equal circulationbilaterally. If one side of the circle of Willis is unable to supply adequateblood, the other side provides blood tothe area normally supplied by thedamaged side (Phipps, 1998, p. 1892)
Cerebral arteries (2 each):Anterior, Middle, Posterior
Jugular veins-drains the brain venous blood throughdural sinuses
Special characteristics of Cerebral Perfusion
3 Physiologic mechanisms under normalcircumstances:
Changes in intracranial pressure
Cerebral vasodilation
Metabolic factors
Mean arterial pressure at which autoregulation iseffective (70-105 mmHg)-Upper limit is 150 mmHgMAP
2 (DBP)3SBP-Systolic blood pressureDBP-Diastolic blood pressure
Cerebral perfusion pressure needed to ensureblood flow to the brainCPP
As CPP decreases, autoregulation fails and CBFdiminishes-30 mmHg is incompatible with life2.Blood brain barrier
physiologic barrier between bloodcapillaries and brain tissue
Neurotransmission-conduction of an impulsethroughout the nervous system
Receive and transmit impulses; non-mitotic
Excitable, conductive and can influence other cells
Parts: cell body (soma), dendrites (short) andaxon
Myelinated and unmyelinatedNote:When injured, centrally located neurons are unable toreproduce themselves because most cell bodies are locatedcentrally and nerve cell bodies cannot reproduce. However,
nerve endings
can regenerate
(Phipps, 1998, p. 1887).I.Transmission within the Nerve fiber
Action potential
Chemical gradient
Electrical gradient
Propagation of Action Potential
1.Resting stage (positive outside, negativeinside)2.Depolarization phase (negative outside,positive inside)II.Transmission across Synapse
-small gaps between neurons
Chemical or electrical
One-way junction1.Impulses reaches the presynapticterminal2.Vesicles release neurotransmitters3.Neurotransmitters inactivated toprevent sustained response
Neurotransmitters-can be excitatory or inhibitory)
Types:1.Acetylcholine-muscle movement2.Biogenic amines (thinking process)-Dopamine-Serotonin-Norepinephrine-Histamine3.Amino acids-GABA-PeptidesNeuroglia-protect and nourish neurons; mitotic- do not transmit impulsesNeuroglia FunctionAstrocytesSupply nutrients to neuronsMicrogliaProvide protection againstmicroorganismsOligodendrocytesWrap tightly around nervefibers to form myelin sheathEpendymal cellsCiliated; line brain cavities;forms CSFSchwann cellsPhagocytic cells that formmyelin sheath around nervefibersSatellite cellsFound in the PNS; maymaintain chemical balance of neurons
Cranium and Cerebral column
Cranium-composed of 8 cranial and facial bones
Foramen magnum-largest hole through whichthe brain stem extends to the spinal cord
Vertebral column-protects the spinal cord,supports the head and provides flexibility;strengthened by ligaments and fibrocartilagedisc
Cranial meninges
Dura mater
Pia materFalx cerebri-divides the left from right hemispheresSubdural-more bleeding
Central Nervous system:
I.Cerebruma.Consists of 2 hemisphereb.Corpus callosum-connects two hemispherec.Cerebral cortex-outer surface of the cerebrumd.Basal ganglia-located deep within cerebralhemispheree.Internal capsule-white matter consisting of bundle of nerve fibers carrying motor andsensory impulses to and from cerebral cortex
Lobes of the Cerebrum and their Functions
AreaFunctionsFrontalControls movements ovoluntary musclePrimary motor areaFacilitates voluntarymovement of skeletalmuscleSpeech area (Wernick’s )-Located in theposterior part of thesuperior temporalconvolutionUnderstanding of spokenand written wordsMotor area (Broca’s)-Located in the lateral,inferior portion of thefrontal lobePromotes vocalization of wordsTemporalReceives and interpretolfactory and auditorystimuliParietalPromotes recognition opain, coldness, light touch(Contralateral reception)OccipitalReceives and interpretsvisual stimuliII.Diencephalon
Embedded in the brain superior to brain stem
Thalamus-process sensory impulses before itreaches cerebral cortex
Hypothalamus-regulates endocrine andautonomic function, temperature, watermetabolism, appetite, emotion, sleep-wake cycleand thirst
Epithalamus-includes pineal gland (secretesmelatonin and inhibits LH), part of endocrinesystem, affects growth and development.III.Brain Stem
Midbrain-center for auditory and visual reflexes
Pons-contains the fiber tracts; contains nucleithat controls respiration-contains pneumotaxic center—controlsrhythmic quality of respirations
Medulla-control cardiac rate, BP, respirators andswallowing
Reticular activating system (RAS)-influenceexcitatory and inhibitory control of motorneuron; regulatory system for consciousnessIV.Cerebellum
Has two hemispheres
Coordination of skeletal muscle activity,maintenance of balance, posture and control of voluntary movements
V.Spinal cord
Extends from medulla up to first lumbarvertebra
Gives rise to 31 pairs of spiral nerves (C1-C8, T1-T12, L1-L5, S1-S5, coccygeal nerve)
Center for conducting messages to and fromthe brain; a reflex center
Ascending (Spinocerebellar)
Carry a specific sensory information tohigher levels of CNS
Spinocerebellar tracts-muscle tension andbody position
Spinothalamic-pain and temperaturesensationDescending (Corticospinal)
Pyramidal tracts-from the cortex to cranialand peripheral nerves; inhibits muscle tone
Extrapyramidal tracts-from brain stem,basal ganglia, and cerebellum; maintainsmuscle tone and gross body movements
Upper motor neurons-from cerebral cortexto anterior gray column of SC; spasticityand hyperactive reflexes
Lower motor neurons-“final commonpathways” from anterior gray column up tomuscles; flaccidity and loss of reflexesVI.Reflex arc
Reflexes-automatic action; spinal cordmediates most reflexes
Automatic or perceptible, inhibited orconditioned
Hyperreflexia-disease or injury of certain descending motor tracts
Hyporeflexia-damage ordegeneration of the sensory ormotor neurons
Peripheral Nervous system
Cranial nerves-innervate head and neckregion, except the vagus nerve
Spinal nerves
Plexuses-complex cluster of nervefibers (cervical, brachial, lumbarand sacral region)
Dermatomes-area of the skininnervated by cutaneous branchesof a single spinal nerve
Somatic Nervous system
Consists of motor and sensory nerves
Controls skeletal muscles
Produces a motor response throughefficient nerve fibers from CNS whichtransmit impulses to the skin andskeletal muscles
Autonomic Nervous System
Controls involuntary or automatic body functions
Has two subdivisions, serving same organ but havecounterbalancing effects; each system can inhibit theorgan stimulated by the other
Sympathetic Nervous System
originates from lateral horns of firstthoracic through the first lumbar of spinal cord (thoracolumbar)
helps the body cope with events in theexternal environment
Functions mainly during stress,triggering the fight or flight response
Increases heart rate and respiratoryrate, pupil dilation, cold, and sweatypalms
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Consist of the vagus nerves originatingin the medulla of the brain stem andspinal nerves originating from thesacral region of the spinal cord(craniosacral)
Activates GI system
Supports restorative, resting bodyfunction through such actions asreplenishing fluids and electrolytesEffect organSympatheticParasympatheticHeartIncreased rateand contractilityDecreased rateand contractilityLungsRelaxationContractionGIT
TonesphinctersDecreasedContractionIncreasedRelaxationUrinary bladder
Sensory System (General and special)
Type of receptors:1.Exteroreceptors2.Interoreceptors3.Proprioceptors-specific receptors to detect balance,sense of position4.Mechanoceptors-detect pressure, touch (anystimulus that is physical in nature)5.Thermoreceptors-any changes in temperature6.Photoreceptors-light stimulus7.Chemoreceptors-taste, olfactory, pancreatic enzymes8.Nociceptors-severe stimulus9.Cutaneous receptors-touch

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