Pay sufficient wages to cover worker’s basic needs
These standards would fall under “moral universalism”Other examples of universal standards are the International Codes of Conduct for MNEs discussed in Chapter 3. These codes were developed bythe International Chamber of Commerce, the Organization for EconomicCooperation and Development, the International Labor Organization, andthe United Nations. These organizations have promulgated codes of conduct for MNCs in areas such as technology transfer, consumer protection, employment practices, human rights, and other areas.Is one approach preferred over another? According to Bowie, the moraluniversalism approach is preferable to the ethnocentrism or moral relativismapproaches.
a) Define and explain the term societal culture.
(Chapter 3, pages 91-92)Societal culture (or, the culture of a society) comprises the shared values,understandings, assumptions, and goals that are learned from earlier generations, imposed by present members of the society and are passed onto succeeding generations. Essentially, societal culture is learned andshared by and among members of that society. There are several variablecomponents of culture that determine attitudes of people towards work,time, materialism, individualism, and change. For example in U.S. culture,one is expected to be on time for appointments unlike some cultures wheretime is viewed as flexible.
b) Give examples of operational conflicts that could occur in a cross-cultural context because of different attitudes toward: 1) time, 2)change, 3) individualism. (Give of a country or region that would bedifferent from the United States for each of the three variables).
(Chapter 3, pages 105-107)
: In many parts of the world time is looked upon on a different andlonger perspective than in the United States. Americans tend to view time asa valuable limited resource to be spent, saved and used judiciously. Time is precious and deadlines and schedules are not only important but are crucialin business situations. There are however, contrasting perspectives abouttime. For example, in Latin America, a common attitude towards time is
which usually means an indefinite time in the future. Similarly, theword
in Arabic can mean “tomorrow,” or “some time in the future.”While Americans usually regard a deadline as a firm commitment, Arabsoften regard a deadline imposed on them as an insult. They feel thatimportant things take a long time and should not be rushed.
The attitude towards
is directly related to a society’s belief in the extent to which it can control the future. Western societies