Honors BiologyFall, 2008Unit 4 (Genetics) Lecture Outlines
Lecture Outline “Observable Patterns of Inheritance” or “Classical Genetics”Chapter (11)
A Smorgasbord of Ears and Other TraitsA.The observable traits, such as attached or unattached earlobes, are the result ofgenetic expression.B.Gregor Mendel was the first person to systematically pursue the questions ofgenetic.11.1Mendel’s Insight Into Inheritance PatternsA.Inheritance has always been intriguing to humans.1.By the late nineteenth century, natural selection suggested that a populationcould evolve if members showed variation in heritable traits. Variations thatimproved survival chances would be more common in each generation—in time,the population would change or evolve.2.The theory of natural selection did not fit with the prevailing view of inheritance—blending.a.Blending would produce uniform populations—such populations could notevolve. b.Many observations did not fit blending—for example, a white horse and a black horse did not produce only gray offspring.B.Mendel’s Experimental Approach1.Gregor Mendel used experiments in plant breeding and knowledge ofmathematics to form his hypotheses.2.Mendel used the garden pea in his experiments.a.This plant can fertilize itself; true-breeding varieties were available toMendel. b.Peas can also be cross-fertilized by human manipulation of the pollen.3.Mendel cross-fertilized true-breeding garden pea plants having clearlycontrasting traits (example: white vs. purple flowers).C.Some Terms Used in Genetics1.
are units of information about specific traits.2.Each gene has a
on a chromosome.3.Diploid cells have two genes (a gene pair) for each trait—each on a
are various molecular forms of a gene for the same trait.5.
occurs when offspring inherit identical alleles, generationafter generation; non-identical alleles produce
6.When both alleles are the same, the condition is called the
condition;if the alleles differ, then it is the
condition.7.When heterozygous, one allele is
), the other is
).8.Homozygous dominant =
homozygous recessive =
and heterozygous =
is the sum of the genes, and
is how the genes are expressed(what you observe).10.
= parental generation;
= first-generation offspring;