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Unit 4 Genetics) Lecture Outlines

Unit 4 Genetics) Lecture Outlines

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09/15/2012

 
Honors BiologyFall, 2008Unit 4 (Genetics) Lecture Outlines
Lecture Outline “Observable Patterns of Inheritance” or “Classical Genetics”Chapter (11)
A Smorgasbord of Ears and Other TraitsA.The observable traits, such as attached or unattached earlobes, are the result ofgenetic expression.B.Gregor Mendel was the first person to systematically pursue the questions ofgenetic.11.1Mendels Insight Into Inheritance PatternsA.Inheritance has always been intriguing to humans.1.By the late nineteenth century, natural selection suggested that a populationcould evolve if members showed variation in heritable traits. Variations thatimproved survival chances would be more common in each generation—in time,the population would change or evolve.2.The theory of natural selection did not fit with the prevailing view of inheritance—blending.a.Blending would produce uniform populations—such populations could notevolve. b.Many observations did not fit blending—for example, a white horse and a black horse did not produce only gray offspring.B.Mendel’s Experimental Approach1.Gregor Mendel used experiments in plant breeding and knowledge ofmathematics to form his hypotheses.2.Mendel used the garden pea in his experiments.a.This plant can fertilize itself; true-breeding varieties were available toMendel. b.Peas can also be cross-fertilized by human manipulation of the pollen.3.Mendel cross-fertilized true-breeding garden pea plants having clearlycontrasting traits (example: white vs. purple flowers).C.Some Terms Used in Genetics1.
Genes
are units of information about specific traits.2.Each gene has a
locus
on a chromosome.3.Diploid cells have two genes (a gene pair) for each trait—each on a
homologouschromosome.
4.
 Alleles
are various molecular forms of a gene for the same trait.5.
True-breeding lineage
occurs when offspring inherit identical alleles, generationafter generation; non-identical alleles produce
hybrid offspring.
6.When both alleles are the same, the condition is called the
homozygous
condition;if the alleles differ, then it is the
heterozygous
condition.7.When heterozygous, one allele is
dominant
(
 A
), the other is
recessive
(
a
).8.Homozygous dominant =
 AA,
homozygous recessive =
aa,
and heterozygous =
 Aa
.9.
Genotype
is the sum of the genes, and
 phenotype
is how the genes are expressed(what you observe).10.
P
= parental generation;
F1
= first-generation offspring;
F2
= second-generationoffspring.
1
 
11.2Mendel's Theory of SegregationA.Predicting Outcomes of Monohybrid Crosses1.Mendel suspected that every plant inherits two "units" (genes) of information fora trait, one from each parent.2.Mendel’s first experiments were monohybrid crosses.a.Monohybrid crosses have two parents that are true-breeding for contrastingforms of a trait. b.One form of the trait disappears in the first generation offspring (
F
1
), only toshow up in the second generation.c.We now know that all members of the first generation offspring areheterozygous because one parent could produce only an
 A
gamete and theother could produce only an
a
gamete.3.Results of the
F
2
generation required mathematical analysis.a.The numerical ratios of crosses suggested that genes do not blend. b.For example, the
F
2
 
offspring showed a 3:1 phenotypic ratio.c.Mendel assumed that each sperm has an equal probability of fertilizing anegg. This can be seen most easily by using the Punnett square.d.Thus, each new plant has three chances in four of having at least onedominant allele.B.Testcrosses1.To support his concept of segregation, Mendel crossed
F
1
plants withhomozygous recessive individuals.2.A 1:1 ratio of recessive and dominant phenotypes supported his hypothesis.C.Mendel's Theory of Segregation1.The Mendelian theory of segregation states that 2
n
organisms inherit two genesper trait located on pairs of homologous chromosomes.2.During meiosis the two genes segregate from each other such that each gametewill receive only one gene per trait.11.3Independent AssortmentA.Predicting Outcomes of Dihybrid Crosses1.Mendel also performed experiments involving two traits—a dihybrid cross.a.Mendel correctly predicted that all
F
1
plants would show both of thedominant alleles (example: all purple flowers and all tall). b.Mendel wondered if the genes for flower color and plant height would traveltogether when two
F
1
plants were crossed.2.We now know that genes located on
non
homologous chromosomes segregateindependently of each other and give the same phenotypic ratio as Mendelobserved—9:3:3:1.B.The Theory in Modern Form1.The Mendelian theory of independent assortment states that during meiosis eachgene of a pair tends to assort into gametes independently of other gene pairslocated on nonhomologous chromosomes.2.Mendel reported his ideas on heredity to the Brunn Society in 1865 andpublished them a year later.a.Few people understood his principles or took note of them. b.He died in 1884 unaware of the revolutionary impact his ideas would have.11.4Dominance RelationsA.Incomplete Dominance1.In
incomplete dominance,
a dominant allele cannot completely mask the expressionof another..2.For example, a true-breeding red-flowered snapdragon crossed with a white-flowered snapdragon will produce white flowers because there is not enough red
2
 
pigment (produced by the dominant allele) to completely mask the effects of thewhite allele.B.ABO Blood Types: A Case of Codominance1.In codominance, both alleles are expressed in heterozygotes (for example,humans with both proteins are designated with blood type AB).2.Whenever more than two forms of alleles exist at a given locus, it is called a
multiple allele system.
In this instance it results in four blood types: A, B, AB, andO.11.5Multiple Effects of Single GenesA.Sometimes the expression of alleles at one location can have effects on two or moretraits; this is termed pleiotropy.B.An excellent example of this phenomenon is the disorder known as Marfansyndrome.1.The gene for codes for a variant form of fibrillin1, a protein in the extracellularmatrix of connective tissues.2.The altered fibrillin 1 causes a weakening of connective tissues throughout the body.3.Marfan syndrome is characterized by these effects: lanky skeleton, leaky heartvalves and weakened blood vessels, deformed air sacs in lungs, pain, lensdisplacement in the eyes.11.6Interactions Between Gene PairsA.One gene pair can influence other gene pairs, with their combined activitiesproducing some effect on phenotype; this called
epistasis.
B.Hair Color in Mammals1.In Labrador retrievers, one gene pair codes for the
quantity
of melanin producedwhile another codes for melanin
deposition.
2.Still another gene locus determines whether melanin will be produced at all—lack of any produces an albino (recessive).C.Comb Shape in Poultry1.Sometimes interaction between two gene pairs results in a phenotype that neitherpair can produce alone.2.Comb shape in chickens is of at least four types depending on the interactions oftwo gene pairs (R and P).11.7How Can We Explain Less Predictable Variations?A.Regarding the Unexpected Phenotype1.Tracking even a single gene through several generation may produce results thatare different than expected.2.Camptodactyly (immobile, bent fingers) can express itself on one hand only, bothhands, or neither due the possibility that a gene product is missing in one of theseveral steps along the metabolic pathway.B.Continuous Variation in Populations1.A given phenotype can vary, by different degrees, from one individual to thenext in a population.a.This is the result of interactions with other genes, and environmentalinfluences. b.In humans, eye color and height are examples.2.Most traits are not qualitative but show continuous variation and are transmitted by quantitative inheritance.11.8Environmental Effects on Phenotype
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