Local anesthetics allow for the relief of pain pre-operatively, post operatively, following trauma &during ophthalmic examination.Among the local anesthetics used opthalmically are Tetracaine, benoximate, proparacaine, cocaine,dyclonine & phenacaine etc.
These agents combat inflammation of the eye. Most prominent among these arehydrocortisone, prednisolone & dexamethsone salts.
Local antiseptics are employed topically to reduce microbial presence on the eye. Among these arecertain organic mercury compounds as trimerosal & ammoniated mercury & silver nitrate.
Antimicrobial agents are used specifically to combat infection of the eye. They are frequentlyemployed both systemically & locally for their effect. Among those applied topically to the eye arechloramphenical, sulfacetamide sodium, Gentramycin, Tetracyclline & Neomycine.
These agents are generally used in the treatment of conjunctivitis (inflammation of the conjunctivacharacterized by redness and often accompanied by a discharge). Most preparations for this purposeutilize Zinc-compounds, particularly Zinc Sulfate, as the astringent.
These agents are employed as artificial tears or as a contact lens fluid. Examples of agents used inthese solutions are methylcellulose & hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose.
Formulation of Ophthalmic Preparations:-
The primary requirement for the ophthalmic preparation is that it should be sterile. As most of theophthalmic preparations cannot be sterilized in the final containers due to the sensitivity of the activeingredients &/or excipients or package to the elevated heat, therefore these products are sterilizedindividually. They are blended aseptically, filled aseptically in pre-sterilized containers using asepticcapping technique.Due to these restrictions of sterility & purity the ophthalmic products are prepared in completelysterile environment using aseptic techniques to minimize the chances of contamination during the preparation & filling. Thus for the preparation of safe, sterile & therapeutically active product, thefollowing factors must be controlled: -1.Environment2.Manufacturing Techniques3.Raw Material4.Machinery (equipment)