Steering of a four wheel vehicle is, as far as possible, arranged so that the front wheels will roll trulywithout any lateral slip. The front wheels are supported on front axle so that they can swing to the left orright for steering. This movement is produced by gearing and linkage between the steering wheel in front of the driver and the steering knuckle or wheel. The complete arrangement is called the steering system.Figure 2.1 steering system
2.1 REQUIREMENTS OF STEERING SYSTEM
It should multiply the turning effort applied on the steering wheel by the driver. It should be to acertain degree irreversible so that the shocks of the road surface encountered by the wheels are nottransmitted to the driver's hand. The mechanism should have self
brightening effect so that when the driverrelease the steering wheel after negotiating the turn, the wheel should try to achieve straight ahead position .
2.2 FUNCTIONS OF THE STEERING SYSTEM
To control the angular motion the wheels and thus the direction of motion of the vehicle. To providedirectional stability of the vehicle while going straight ahead. To facilitate straight ahead condition of thevehicle after completing a turn. The road irregularities must be damped to the maximum possible extent. Thisshould co-exist with the road feel for the driver so that he can feel the road condition without experiencingthe effects of moving over it. To minimize tire wear and increase the life of the tires.
2.3 STEERING PRINCIPLES AND COMPONENTSSteering Mechanism:
There are two types of steering gear mechanisms1.
Davis Steering gear 2. Ackermann Steering gear2.3.1
DAVIS STEERING GEAR:The Davis Steering gear has sliding pair; it has more friction than the turning pair, therefore the DavisSteering Gear wear out earlier and become inaccurate after certain time. This type is mathematically