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Maths Skills

# Maths Skills

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My tips for A level H2 Maths questions. Maths is all about structure, while I try to list as many possible ways to tackle a questions, this list is not exhausitve.
My tips for A level H2 Maths questions. Maths is all about structure, while I try to list as many possible ways to tackle a questions, this list is not exhausitve.

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10/19/2014

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Done by Nickolas Teo Jia Ming
Mathematics skills
Disclaimer: These notes are based on my opinion on how the questions should be tackled. Do take itwith a pinch of salt, and practice to see how they are applied.

Miscellaneous

When the answer you need to show is an integer multiple of a
o

 ∈ ℤ

o

=3
,
ℎ

To show that
is a positive integer as well as
0

o

0+

o

+
{0}

To show continued multiplication, division, addition or subtraction, use

o

+1−1
−2
31

o

+1−1
+
−2
+
+
31

Note the ‘
+
’ flanking the


to the end of a radian value
APGP

If the question points to a trend being AP/GP but did not explicitly say so, define it
o

____ follows an arithmetic/ geometric progression with first term
, common ratio

Sub in
and
if known

Also define
,
or
is used
o

/
is the


term of the arithmetic/ geometric progression
o

is the sum of the first
terms of the arithmetic/ geometric progression

When converting AP to GP and vice versa, convert either the common ratio or differenceinto the other, and solve to get the common ratio/ difference

When converting AP to GP and vice versa, take note of when the progression starts, so as tonot double count when adding to past results. (See MSM qn 4ii)

When finding sum of a non AP GP sequence, split the sequence into its AP GP components,and add them up.

When showing the GP is convergent, need to show that
|
|<1
, not just
<1

When dealing with percentages
o

it is better to write it as a decimal than a fraction

3% = 0.03
3100

o

If the price, savings, quantity etc. is increasing by a percentage, it is better tocalculate the final price than finding the change and adding it to the original

150(1.03)
rather than
150+ 150(0.03)

Binominal expression

Done by Nickolas Teo Jia Ming

When finding range for the expression to be valid, if x^2 is present, take the positive limitonly, and use it as both the upper and lower limit
o

For example:
0.5 <
2
< 0.5

2
0.5 <0


2
+0.5 > 0

√
0.5

+
√
0.5
<0




√
0.5<
<
√
0.5

To find the coefficient of
, you need to find a trend in the coefficient of the
, usually byreferring to earlier workings to see how the coefficient is derived

When asked to find in ascending powers of
1
,use the descending powers of
method

o

(3+
)
−1
=
−1
(
3
+1)
−1
=
−1
(1
3
+
(
−1
)(
−2
)
2
!
3
2
+
)
Mathematical induction

When making conjecture, try to include the term number in the result obtained
o

For example,
4
=
23
=
46
, where in this case, the nominator is the term number.

To prove by mathematical induction
o

Let
be the statement of ‘

=

(of given equation),
+

o

Prove
1
is true

When
= 1





1
=





1
= =




1

o

Assume
is true for some k,

+

o

Prove
is true
+1
is true

When
=
+1





+1
=





+1
= =




+1

Use
equation

o

Since
1
is true,
is true
+1
is true, by mathematical induction,
is true for all
,
+
,
1
Recurrence relation

When finding the limit of ‘
+1
= ??
o

Say ‘IF the sequence converges, as
,
+1
,
o

You get the equation ‘
= ??

Solve from here to get the exact answer

To show that they have similar roots as the graph, make it like the equationgiven, then say ‘Given that the roots of
= ??
are …’
o

Have a statement saying ‘The sequence converges to …’

When proving
+1
>
,
if
>
(or the other way round
o

From ‘
+1
= ??
’ (the given equation)

‘As
,
+1
,

= ??

o

From
>

Convert
to
+1
by changing both sides

From
>

Done by Nickolas Teo Jia Ming

To
??
> ??

To
+1
>

When proving

<

+1
(or the other way around)
o

Write “Considering

+1

The

on the left side is the same as the

on the left side of the equationyou want to prove
o

Replace

+1
in terms of


o

Make it look like the graph equation (or the other equation given to you, else drawone)

It can look similar in the sense that the equation obtain is a multiple orfraction of the graph equation

Because when y is scaled, the intercept does not change

If no graph is given, and the equation of the ideal graph is not known, draw

=
+1

(where is

+1
whatever the equation given is)

The x-intercept will be the value of

when

<

+1
or

>

+1

o

Write “From the graph of
= ??
, when
(not

) … (the condition given)

<

<
<

>

Etc.
o

The graph is
> 0
or
< 0
o

Write “Thus given

,

+1
<0



+1
>0
o

Write “Thus

<

+1
or

>

+1
””

To show strictly increasing or decreasing
o

Show

>

+1
or

<

+1

o

Refer to above

When needing to eliminate a possible answer, look at the stem of the question
o

Find any restrictions, like only positive numbers

Important points for a sketch
o

Axial intercepts
o

Turning points
o

Asymptotes

When describing the trend of recurrence relations
o

Strictly increasing/ decreasing
o

Converge to ___
Equations

Formulate equations based on info
o

Number of equations should equal number of variables

Parametric equation
o

To find equation of tangent


=

×
