Efcient Phase-Encoding Quantum Key Generation with Narrow-Band SinglePhotons
, ZHU Shi-Liang(
, DU Sheng-Wang(
Laboratory o Quantum Inormation Technology, ICMP and SPTE, South China Normal University,Guangzhou 510006
Department o Physics, The Hong Kong University o Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong
(Received 17 February 2011)
We propose an ecient phase-encoding quantum secret key generation scheme with heralded narrow-band single photons. The key inormation is carried by the phase modulation directly on the single-photon temporal wave-orm. We show that when the technique is applied to the conventional single photon phase-encoding BB84 anddiferential phase shit (DPS) quantum key distribution schemes, the key generation eciencies can be improvedby actors o 2 and 3, respectively. For
3)-period DPS systems, the key generation eciency can be im- proved by a actor o
. The technique is suitable or quantum-memory-based long-distance ber communicationsystems.
PACS: 03.67.Dd, 42.50.Dv, 03.67.Hk
DOI:10.1088/0256-307X/28/7/070307Quantum key distribution (QKD) is an uncondi-tionally secure method to distribute secret keys be-tween two parties (Alice and Bob). The securityo QKD is guaranteed by the principles o quan-tum mechanics,
such as noncloning theorem andHeisenberg uncertainty. Since the rst QKD ex-periment using a 32cm ree-space transmission linewas reported in 1992,
the key distribution dis-tance has continued to increase. With the ber-baseddecoy-state BB84 protocol, a photon number splitting(PNS) secure key distribution over 200km has beenachieved.
With the diferential phase shit (DPS)QKD scheme, the PNS-secure key distribution dis-tance record is also 200km.
The attenuated laser isused as the source in the above schemes. In order to in-crease the key distribution distance, a quantum mem-ory and quantum repeater are proposed and demon-strated recently.
Hence, a single photon, especiallya narrowband single photon, is regarded as an attrac-tive source or long distance QKD again besides the at-tenuated laser.
With single photons, phase-encodingBB84 (PE-BB84),
and the DPS-QKDs
are twotypical schemes: Alice divides the single photon intotwo or more time slots and Bob detects the single pho-ton using an unbalanced Mach–Zehnder (M-Z) inter-erometer, respectively. Because the sequenced single-photon pulses experience the same phase and polar-ization changes during propagation through the bertransmission line,
the bit error can easily becorrected at the receiver. However, due to a lacko generating single photons with controllable (phase-amplitude) waveorms, in the conventional single pho-ton PE-BB84 and DPS-QKD schemes, a single photonis split into paths with diferent lengths and then re-combined with passive beam splitters that introduceunavoidable loss. As a result, the generation eciencydecreases as the number o time slots increases. In or-der to increase the generation eciency, many meth-ods have been proposed, such as using optical switchesor a polarization beam splitter.
(a) The conventional phase-encoding BB84scheme; (b) our proposed phase-encoding BB84 schemewith heralded narrow bandwidth square wave single pho-tons; S: Stokes; AS: anti-Stokes; PM: phase modulator;BS, BS1, BS2: 50% beam splitters; M, M1, M2: mirrors;D, D1, D2: single-photon detectors.
In this Letter, we propose another phase-encodinggeneration method to improve the key creation e-ciency in the PE-BB84 and DPS-QKD schemeswithout using a M-Z intererometer on Alice’s site.The motivation comes rom the recent narrow-bandnonclassical paired photon generation.
Usingspontaneous our-wave mixing and electromagneti-cally induced transparency in cold atoms, a subnat-ural linewidth biphoton with a coherence time o
Supported by the Hong Kong Research Council Project (No HKUST600809), the National Natural Science Foundation o Chinaunder Grant No 1097405, the National Basic Research Program o China under Grant Nos 2011CB922104 and 2007CB925204.
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