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Phase-Encoding Quantum Key Generation With Narrow-Band Single Photons

Phase-Encoding Quantum Key Generation With Narrow-Band Single Photons

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Published by Jason Warden
The possibility of Phase encoded Quantum telecommunication and teleportation exists within this letter. I feel it is important to share this knowledge as the applications are much wider than the original authors intended with the submission with this article.

In this paper, it clearly demonstrates how temporal wave forms are used to manipulate differential phase shifts within single photons themselves. This enabled the scientists to transmit information securely to a distance of over 200km.

The ability to propagate the information on a quantum level, and a moderate ability to account for the Heisenberg uncertainty principle would allow for the accurate quantum tracking, storage, and movement of every molecule in our body to be taken apart, and put back together between moderately large distances so long as the waveform can remain coherent,targeted and no information (data) is lost or stolen during the transmission. This QKD method is the means to secure that information.
The possibility of Phase encoded Quantum telecommunication and teleportation exists within this letter. I feel it is important to share this knowledge as the applications are much wider than the original authors intended with the submission with this article.

In this paper, it clearly demonstrates how temporal wave forms are used to manipulate differential phase shifts within single photons themselves. This enabled the scientists to transmit information securely to a distance of over 200km.

The ability to propagate the information on a quantum level, and a moderate ability to account for the Heisenberg uncertainty principle would allow for the accurate quantum tracking, storage, and movement of every molecule in our body to be taken apart, and put back together between moderately large distances so long as the waveform can remain coherent,targeted and no information (data) is lost or stolen during the transmission. This QKD method is the means to secure that information.

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Published by: Jason Warden on Jun 26, 2012
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11/04/2012

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CHIN. PHYS. LETT.Vol.28,No.7(2011)070307
Efcient Phase-Encoding Quantum Key Generation with Narrow-Band SinglePhotons
*
YAN Hui(
)
1
,
2
, ZHU Shi-Liang(
)
1
, DU Sheng-Wang(
)
2
1
Laboratory o Quantum Inormation Technology, ICMP and SPTE, South China Normal University,Guangzhou 510006 
2
Department o Physics, The Hong Kong University o Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong 
(Received 17 February 2011)
We propose an ecient phase-encoding quantum secret key generation scheme with heralded narrow-band single  photons. The key inormation is carried by the phase modulation directly on the single-photon temporal wave-orm. We show that when the technique is applied to the conventional single photon phase-encoding BB84 anddiferential phase shit (DPS) quantum key distribution schemes, the key generation eciencies can be improvedby actors o 2 and 3, respectively. For 
 
(
3)-period DPS systems, the key generation eciency can be im- proved by a actor o 
 
. The technique is suitable or quantum-memory-based long-distance ber communicationsystems.
PACS: 03.67.Dd, 42.50.Dv, 03.67.Hk 
DOI:10.1088/0256-307X/28/7/070307Quantum key distribution (QKD) is an uncondi-tionally secure method to distribute secret keys be-tween two parties (Alice and Bob). The securityo QKD is guaranteed by the principles o quan-tum mechanics,
[1
,
2]
such as noncloning theorem andHeisenberg uncertainty. Since the rst QKD ex-periment using a 32cm ree-space transmission linewas reported in 1992,
[3]
the key distribution dis-tance has continued to increase. With the ber-baseddecoy-state BB84 protocol, a photon number splitting(PNS) secure key distribution over 200km has beenachieved.
[4]
With the diferential phase shit (DPS)QKD scheme, the PNS-secure key distribution dis-tance record is also 200km.
[5]
The attenuated laser isused as the source in the above schemes. In order to in-crease the key distribution distance, a quantum mem-ory and quantum repeater are proposed and demon-strated recently.
[6]
Hence, a single photon, especiallya narrowband single photon, is regarded as an attrac-tive source or long distance QKD again besides the at-tenuated laser.
[7]
With single photons, phase-encodingBB84 (PE-BB84),
[8]
and the DPS-QKDs
[9
11]
are twotypical schemes: Alice divides the single photon intotwo or more time slots and Bob detects the single pho-ton using an unbalanced Mach–Zehnder (M-Z) inter-erometer, respectively. Because the sequenced single-photon pulses experience the same phase and polar-ization changes during propagation through the bertransmission line,
[9
,
10
,
12]
the bit error can easily becorrected at the receiver. However, due to a lacko generating single photons with controllable (phase-amplitude) waveorms, in the conventional single pho-ton PE-BB84 and DPS-QKD schemes, a single photonis split into paths with diferent lengths and then re-combined with passive beam splitters that introduceunavoidable loss. As a result, the generation eciencydecreases as the number o time slots increases. In or-der to increase the generation eciency, many meth-ods have been proposed, such as using optical switchesor a polarization beam splitter.
[13]
SinglePhotonSource
MPM
 
BSBSM
 
PM
 
BSMMD2D1Alice Bob(a)(b)
BiphotonSource
PM
 
D2
PMBS1M1M2
D1
Alice BobASD0BS2BSS
Trigger Trigger
Fig.1.
(a) The conventional phase-encoding BB84scheme; (b) our proposed phase-encoding BB84 schemewith heralded narrow bandwidth square wave single pho-tons; S: Stokes; AS: anti-Stokes; PM: phase modulator;BS, BS1, BS2: 50% beam splitters; M, M1, M2: mirrors;D, D1, D2: single-photon detectors.
In this Letter, we propose another phase-encodinggeneration method to improve the key creation e-ciency in the PE-BB84 and DPS-QKD schemeswithout using a M-Z intererometer on Alice’s site.The motivation comes rom the recent narrow-bandnonclassical paired photon generation.
[14
17]
Usingspontaneous our-wave mixing and electromagneti-cally induced transparency in cold atoms, a subnat-ural linewidth biphoton with a coherence time o 
*
Supported by the Hong Kong Research Council Project (No HKUST600809), the National Natural Science Foundation o Chinaunder Grant No 1097405, the National Basic Research Program o China under Grant Nos 2011CB922104 and 2007CB925204.
**
Email: yanhui1981@gmail.com; yanhui@scnu.edu.cn
©
070307-1
 
CHIN. PHYS. LETT.Vol.28,No.7(2011)070307
up to about 1
µ
s has been demonstrated.
[18]
Du
et al.
[19]
proposed and demonstrated shaping biphotontemporal waveorms by periodically modulating thetwo classical driven elds. With such a long coher-ence time and under detecting one o the paired pho-tons, heralded single photons with arbitrary phase-amplitude waveorm can be generated with externallight modulators.
[20
,
21]
It is then possible to eliminatethe need or beam splitters in the conventional phase-encoding schemes by using directly phase modulatedheralded narrow-band single photons.
(a)(b)(c)
 
Fig.2.
Time sequence o the phase modulated squarewave single photon o the proposed phase-encoding BB84scheme. The ratio o the click probability in the threetime sequences is
(
) : (
) : (
) = 1 : 2 : 1
.
 
is the phasemodulated period (here we take
 
= 100
ns).
We rst consider the PE-BB84 scheme and im-prove its key generation eciency. Figure1(a) showsthe conventional setup. On Alice’s site, a single pho-ton is divided into one short path and one long pathwith phase modulation (PM) and a time delay o 
 
ater the rst beam splitter (50%), and then is recom-bined at the second beam splitter (50%). This efec-tively splits the single photon as a superposition o twotime slots separated by time
 
. The phase diferencebetween these two time slots is modulated by one o the two nonorthogonal bases
{
0
,
}
and
{
/
2
,
3
/
2
}
randomly. Bob measures the phase diference withtwo detectors in either the
{
0
,
}
or the
{
/
2
,
3
/
2
}
basis, using a phase modulator in the long path o anunbalanced M-Z intererometer whose path diferenceequals that on Alice’s site. It is clear that the singlephoton on Alice’s site has 50% probability o leakingout o the system and thus the maximum key send-ing eciency is
1
/
2
. On Bob’s site, there is no photonloss through the beam splitters. To maximize the usedeciency o the single-photon source, it is better orus to avoid the beam splitters on Alice’s site. Ourproposed scheme is shown in Fig.1(b), where Alice’ssite is modied. In our scheme, with the technique de-scribed in Res.[20,21] and eedback waveorm control, Alice makes use o narrow-band biphotons to generatea heralded single anti-Stokes photon with a rectangu-lar shape with a temporal length o 2T (or exam-ple,
 
=100ns). This rectangular-shaped single pho-ton then passes through a PM trigged by detection o the Stokes photon and the phase diference is encodedto the two time slots. The detection at Bob’s site issimilar to that in the conventional scheme [Fig.1(a)]except that the trigger timing o detecting the Stokesphoton is sent rom Alice through a classical channel.In this way, there is no photon loss on Alice’s site andthe key generation eciency is increased by a actoro 2. Bob could detect one photon at the three timeinstances with the ratio
1 : 2 : 1
, as illustrated inFig.2, (a) the rst period o the photon passes theshort path o the M-Z intererometer; (b) the rst pe-riod o the photon passes the long path and the secondperiod o the photon passes the short path o the M-Z intererometer; (c) the second period o the photonpasses the long path o the M-Z intererometer. In thetime instant (b), the phase diference between the twoconsecutive periods will determine the outputs o theM-Z intererometer and then the click o the detector.When Bob detects a photon at the time instances (a)and (c), he will discard data. When Bob detects aphoton at the time instance (b), a secret key bit canbe created by comparing his basis with Alice’s, similarto the protocol in polarization-based BB84.
[3]
BecauseBob has 1/2 probability in measuring the phase di-erence and another 1/2 probability in matching thebasis, the receiving-key eciency is 1/4. Thereore ac-counting or the sending eciency on Alice’s side, thetotal key creation eciency is 1/8 or the conventionalPE-BB84 scheme, and 1/4 or the improved scheme.The security o the PE-BB84 scheme has been ana-lyzed a lot in the past and is proven to be uncondi-tionally secure.
[2
,
22]
SinglePhotonSource
MBSBSM
  
BSMMD2D1AliceBob(a)(b)
BiphotonSource
PM
 
D2
BS1M1M2D1Alice BobASD0
BS2
BSSPMBSBS
  
Trigger Trigger
Fig.3.
(a) The currently implemented DPS-QKDscheme; (b) our proposed DPS-QKD scheme with her-alded narrow bandwidth square wave single photons; S:Stokes; AS: anti-Stokes; PM: phase modulator; BS, BS1,BS2: 50% beam splitters; M, M1, M2: mirrors; D, D1,D2: single-photon detectors.
Now we turn to the DPS-QKD scheme that hasbeen demonstrated to be one o the most applicableschemes.
[8]
We show that with a phase-modulated longsingle photon rom a biphoton source, the key creationeciency o the DPS-QKD scheme could also be im-proved signicantly. Figure3(a) shows the setup o the conventional DPS-QKD scheme.
[8]
On Alice’s site,the photon rom a single photon source is divided into070307-2
 
CHIN. PHYS. LETT.Vol.28,No.7(2011)070307
three paths with time separation
 
and then recom-bined by beam splitters. The keys are encoded bypreparing the relative phase shit between two consec-utive pulses in
0
or
randomly. Bob measures thephase diference using an unbalanced M-Z intererom-eter setup with a path diference that compensates orthe time delay
 
. Similar to that in PE-BB84, thesending eciency o a DPS photon is only 1/3 due tothe loss o beam splitters. Such a loss can be elim-inated in our improved scheme without using beamsplitters on Alice’s site, as shown in Fig.3(b). Simi-lar to the improved PE-BB84 system, we divide thelong rectangular-shape photon with a temporal length3T into 3 time sequences with equal period
 
. Asone does not know the exact arrival time o the sin-gle photon within the three time slots, the heraldedsingle photon can be described as a superposition o 
|
1
0
0
,
|
0
1
0
, and
|
0
0
1
(where
1
representsthe photon at time slot
, otherwise it is
0
). Becausethe phase o each time slot is randomly modulated by
0
or
, the photon sent rom Alice to Bob is in one o the our states:
1
/
3(
|
1
0
0
± |
0
1
0
± |
0
0
1
)
in the present scheme. These our states, which arenonorthogonal with each other and thus cannot beidentied by a single measurement, have the samemathematical orms as those in the conventional DPS-QKD scheme.
[9
,
11]
Thereore, the unconditional secu-rity o the proposed scheme can be proved ollowingthe procedure in Res[9,11]. The detection setup on Bob’s site is similar to that in the conventional schemewith the trigger timing sent rom Alice through aclassical channel by detecting the Stokes photons. Itis clear that the single-photon sending eciency be-comes unity in this case and the encoding machine islossless. In the DPS-QKD conguration, Bob detectsa photon at our possible time instances with the ratio
1 : 2 : 2 : 1
, as illustrated in Fig.4: (a) the photon inthe rst period passes the short path o the M-Z inter-erometer, (b) the photon in the rst period passes thelong path and the photon in the second period passesthe short path; (c) the photon in the second periodpasses the long path and the photon in the third pe-riod passes the short path; and (d) the photon in thethird period passes the long path. In the time in-stances (b) and (c), the phase diference between theproper consecutive periods will determine the outputso the M-Z intererometer and then the click o the de-tector. Bob discards the photons detected at the timeinstances (a) and (d), and communicates with Alicethe time instance when he obtains a photon click onlyat (b) or (c).
[9]
With her own modulation pattern, Al-ice knows which detector clicked on Bob’s site and keybits are created and shared by the two parties. Thedetails o the protocol can be seen in Re.[9]. Herewe ocus on the key creation eciency. On Bob’ssite, photons counted at time instances (b) and (c)ully contribute to the key. The probability o theseevents is
2
/
3
. Thus, taking into account the sendingeciency on Alice’s site, the entire key creation e-ciency is
2
/
9
or the conventional beam-splitter-basedDPS-QKD scheme, and 2/3 or our improved scheme.Another eature that should be mentioned is the inor-mation capacity ater error correction. As describedabove, the eciency o obtaining sited keys in ourscheme is
3
times that in the conventional DPS-QKDscheme, while the error rate introduced by the sim-ple intercept/resend attack is
1
/
4
, which is the sameas the other scheme. Thus, the new scheme has thelarger nal inormation capacity when other parame-ters hold the same.
(a)(b)(c)(d)
 
Fig.4.
Time sequence o the phase modulated squarewave photon o our proposed DPS-QKD scheme. The ra-tio o the click probability in the our time sequences is
(
) : (
) : (
) : (
) = 1 : 2 : 2 : 1
.
 
is the phase modulatedperiod (here we take
 
= 100
ns).
 510152025       0.0       0.2       0.4       0.6       0.8       1.0      
    C      r      e      a      t      i      o      n      e      f      f      i      c      i      e      n      c      y  
       
Newscheme      ConventionalDPS      
   -        
 QKDscheme      
Fig.5.
The key creation eciency with diferent
 
or ourproposed scheme and the conventional DPS-QKD scheme(with passive BS).
As proposed by Inoue
et al 
.,
[9
,
23]
the above DPS-QKD scheme with
 
= 3
time slots can be extendedto the
 
(
>
3
cases where the key receiving eciencyscales as
(
 
1)
/ 
and approaches 1 at a large
 
limit. However, in the conventional setup with pas-sive beam splitters on Alice’s site, the single-photonsending eciency decreases at a larger
 
because itscales as
1
/ 
. As a result, the total key creation e-ciency becomes
(
 
1)
/ 
2
and decreases to zero atthe limit o large
 
. I we use heralded narrow-bandsingle photons with proper phase-amplitude modula-tions, the sending eciency on Alice’s site will alwaysbe 1 and will not depend on
 
. Thus, in our pro-posed technique, the total key creation eciency isproportional to
(
 
1)
/ 
and indeed reaches unity070307-3

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