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ELE4205 Antennas

ELE4205 Antennas

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Published by: Eng Simon Peter Nsozi on Jun 26, 2012
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ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
Electromagnetic Radiation
A system of conductors/material media which is connected to a power source so as to producea time varying electromagnetic field in an external region will radiate energy. When this systemis arranged so as to optimise the radiation of energy from some portion of the system while atthe same time minimising/suppressing radiation from the rest of the system, that portion of thesystem is called an
antenna.Antenna Fundamentals
An antenna acts as a transducer for converting a movement of charge on a conductor intoelectromagnetic waves propagating in free space (transmitter function) and the reverse process(receiver function). It is assumed that the antenna is connected to a known power source bymeans of a transmission line/waveguide. Reception and transmission antennas have similar characteristics and therefore the two words will be used synonymously and sometimes the sameantenna is often used for both purposes. The antenna is an integral part of any radiocommunication system and thus its design is of paramount importance to a Radio Engineer.
Vector (Ā) and Scalar () Potentials
ϕ
The electric and magnetic fields are so closely inter-related that one can never be definedwithout the other unlike in electrostatics and magnetostatics. This relationship is shown in
Maxwell’s equations
of electromagnetics.
 B E 
=×
(1)
 J  D H 
+=×
(2)
 ρ 
=
D
(3)
0
=
B
(4) Note: In a material media with electrical properties ε
and µ
, the constitutive electric andmagnetic field equations are re-written as:
 E  D
o
ε ε 
=
(5a)
 H  B
o
 µ  µ 
=
(5b)
1
AWM ELE4205 ANTENNASELECTRICAL ENG DEPT MAKEREREUNIVERSITY
 
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
In electromagnetic waves, the magnetic and electric are related to the vector (Ā) and scalar ()
ϕ
  potentials. These are in turn also related to their sources which are: current density (J) andcharge density (ρ). Consider the distribution of charge density,
 
 ρ(r,t)
which varies with spaceand time. The relationship between the charge density and current density is manifested in the
continuity equation
.
( )( )
 J 
=
,,
ρ 
(6)We wish to relate the magnetic and electric fields to their sources, i.e. current density, J andcharge density, ρ. However, equations 1 and 2 are coupled in a complex fashion, with the resultthat it is difficult to relate H and E to J and ρ directly.Taking the curl of 1 and 2 with substitutions of Maxwell’s equations yields:
 J  E  E 
=××
µ  µε 
22
(7)
 J  H  H 
×+=××
22
 µε 
(8)Using the vector identity:
( )
 F  F 
2
=××
and equation 3 in equations 7 & 8:
 J  E  E 
+     =
µ ε  ρ  µε 
222
(9)
 J  H  H 
×=
222
 µε 
(10)The LHS of equations 9 & 10 are travelling wave equations.In order relate the vector (Ā) and scalar () potentials to the sources J and ρ, it is necessary to
ϕ
 make use of supporting functions, i.e.
( )
0
×
and
( )
0
×
Therefore the vector potential, Ā is defined as:
 A B
×=
(11)Thus from eq. 1 & 11
2
AWM ELE4205 ANTENNASELECTRICAL ENG DEPT MAKEREREUNIVERSITY
 
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
(
 A E 
×=×
(12)
0
=      +×
 A E 
(13)Hence, 
φ 
=+
 A E 
(14)Equations 2, 3 and 14 are used to show how Ā and are related to their respective sources J
ϕ
 and ρ. Using equation 2 and 11, we obtain:
( )
 E  A
+=××
ε  µ 
1
(15) Note: All the vectors have space and time functional relationships, i.e.
(r,t).
 Using 14 and 15 together with the above vector identity gives:
( )
[ ]
 A A A
+     =
φ ε ε  µ 
222
1
(16)Using 3 and 14 also gives:
(
ε  ρ φ 
=
2
 A
(17)The partial differential equations 16 and 17 are coupled since each of them contains Ā and .
ϕ
 Since
 A
×
is already known, it’s also necessary to determine
 A
in order to define Ācompletely.
 A vector field is completely specified only if its curl and divergence are defined.
The Lorentz gauge condition (equation 18 below) defines Ā completely and is used to decoupleĀ and .
ϕ
0
=+
 A
φ  µε 
(18)Substituting 18 in 16 gives:
3
AWM ELE4205 ANTENNASELECTRICAL ENG DEPT MAKEREREUNIVERSITY

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